Relativitätstheorie

Die Relativitätstheorie befasst sich mit der Struktur von Raum und Zeit, dem Verhalten von Masse in selbigen (SRT) und setzt das alles in Abhängigkeit zur Gravitation (ART).

Rückblick

Anfang des 20. Jahrhunderts fußte das naturwissenschaftliche Verständnis von Raum, Zeit und Gravitation noch auf der newtonschen Physik. Die newtonsche Physik malte uns ein Bild des Universums mit Raum und Zeit als absolute, d.h. unveränderliche und voneinander unabhängige Größen. Die Gravitation zeichnete er als Kraft zwischen zwei Massepunkten.

Überblick

In den Jahren von 1905 bis 1916 erfuhren diese Auffassungen dann eine radikale Revolution, ausgelöst durch eben jene Relativitätstheorie. Der theoretische Physiker Albert Einstein war maßgeblich an ihr beteiligt.

Die nächsten Abschnitte werden versuchen, die Grundlagen der Relativitätstheorie zusammenzufassen. Dabei muss der Prägnanz wegen auf Erläuterungen und Details verzichtet werden. Sie finden jedoch unter jedem Abschnitt Hinweise zu weiterführende Aufsätze. Falls Sie sich also näher für eines der aufregenden Phänomene der RT interessieren, klicken Sie sich einfach weiter.

1. Spezielle Relativitätstheorie

Häufig wird behauptet, Einstein habe Newton widerlegt. Das ist falsch, er verbesserte ihn lediglich durch eine allgemeinere Theorie. Mit seiner speziellen Relativitätstheorie entlarvte Albert Einstein nämlich Raum, Zeit und Bewegung als relative Größen. Die newtonsche Physik war damit entthront und ist in Einsteins Theorie nur noch als ein besonderer Grenzfall enthalten.

Doch nicht nur das, die spezielle Relativitätstheorie kann uns auch zeigen, dass Raum und Zeit gar nicht unabhängig voneinander existieren. Vielmehr verschmelzen die beiden in der SRT zu einer einheitlichen Raumzeit.

Auch die Masse M und die Energie E erwiesen sich in ihrer weltbekannten Gleichung (s.o.) als zwei Seiten derselben Medaille. Zusammengehalten werden diese schließlich noch durch die Lichtgeschwindigkeit C, die entgegen allen anderen relativen Bewegungen und Geschwindigkeiten immer konstant und unabhängig vom Bezugsystem ist.

2. Allgemeine Relativitätstheorie

Elf Jahre später entwarf Einstein seine Allgemeine Relativitätstheorie. Diese berücksichtigt auch die Fälle, in denen die Gravitation eine Rolle spielt. In zehn Feldgleichungen verwarf Einstein den newtonschen Gedanken, Gravitation sei eine Kraft, die sich ohne Zeitverlust ausbreite. Anstelle dessen fasst er die Gravitation als Eigenschaft der gekrümmten Raumzeit auf. Materie krümmt das Raumzeit-Kontinuum und so entsteht Schwerkraft.

Das Schwerefeld kann man sich wie eine unsichtbare, gespannte Gummihaut vorstellen. Liegt nun ein massereicher Körper, etwa eine Sonne, in ihm, wird sie gekrümmt. Dementsprechend drückt sich auch die Gummihaut ein, wenn man einen Ball auf sie legt. Infolge der derart modifizierten Geometrie der Raumzeit ändert sich sogar der augenscheinlich so geradlinige Verlauf der Lichtstrahlen, die von den Massekörpern ausgehen. Erfasst vom Schwerefeld sucht sich der Lichtstrahl nun einen neuen, kürzstmöglichen Weg. Aus diesem Grund können wir auch noch die Sterne sehen, die sich eigentlich knapp hinter dem Sonnenrand verbergen.

3. Ausblick

Man kann sich wieder und wieder mit der Relativitätstheorie befassen und wird trotzdem niemals zu dem Gefühl kommen, alle ihre Konsequenzen durchgedacht zu haben. So geht es zumindest mir, immer wieder aufs Neue stehe ich vor Situationen, bei denen ich nicht weiß, wie man sie sich gemäß der RT denken soll. Oder die einem immer noch extrem komisch und unreal vorkommen.

Dabei lassen sich die Vorgänge und Eigenschaften innerhalb der Relativitätstheorie mathematisch unglaublich präzise beschreiben und gehören zu den bestbestätigten in der Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften. Dies klassifiziert sie, zusammen mit der Quantentheorie, als eine der besten Theorien der Gegenwart.

Zusammen mit der Quantentheorie stellt die Relativitätstheorie eine der zwei tragenden Säulen der modernen Physik dar. Beide gingen ursprünglich aus der newtonschen Physik hervor, enthalten diese immer noch als Spezialfall und erfüllen somit das Korrespondenzprinzip. Die Bemühungen vieler Physiker gelten dieser Tage der Vereinigung dieser beiden Säulen, wobei meist versucht wird die Relativitätstheorie in die Quantentheorie zu integrieren, und nicht andersrum.

In den Quantenfeldtheorien konnte man bereits die spezielle Relativitätstheorie mit der Quantentheorie und im Rahmen des heutigen Standardmodells der Physik einen. Der noch außenstehenden Quantentheorie, die auch noch die allgemeine Relativitätstheorie bzw. die Gravitation mit ins Boot nimmt, will man dann den Namen Quantengravitationstheorie geben.

4. Verweise

  • Intelligenz: Albert Einstein war ein sehr intelligenter Mensch. Intelligenz aber ist kein reines Bücherwissen und nicht bloß das Resultat testorientiertem Spezialtrainings. Es ist vielmehr eine breite und tiefe Begabung zum Verständnis unbekannter Problemfelder.

  • Raum und Zeit: Die Relativitätstheorie hat uns dem Wesen von Raum und Zeit erheblich näher gebracht. Sie kann aber nicht das letzte Wort gewesen sein, wie sich beispielsweise an Schwarze Löchern zeigen lässt.

  • Sprache: Issac Newton meinte noch: “Die absolute, wahre und mathematische Zeit verfließt an sich und vermöge ihrer Natur gleichförmig, und ohne Beziehung auf irgendeinen äußeren Gegenstand.” Wir wissen es heute besser. Außerdem ist die Aussage „die absolute Zeit fließt gleichförmig“ tautologisch. Sie hat keinen Informationswert, da die absolute Zeit per definitonem immer gleichförmig fließt. Weil, wie könnte man den gleichmäßigen Fluss einer absoluten Zeit überprüfen, wen nicht mit der absoluten Zeit selbst und wie könnte uns ihr Fluss in diesem Fall anders erscheinen, als gleichmäßig? Ähnliches gelte für einen absoluten Raum, der beispielsweise nicht relativ ist. Was Raum und Zeit aber nach unserem heutigen Verständnis sei, geht vollkommen gegen das, was man intuitiv annehmen würde: Raum und Zeit sind keine Bühne, vor deren Hintergrund sich alles Materielle abspielt. Vielmehr sind Raum und Zeit intrinsische Eigenschaften der Materie, die ohne sie gar nicht existieren würde.

  • Unser Problem: Was für die unanschauliche Quantenwelt gilt, gilt in abgeschwächter Form also auch für die Relativitätstheorie: Sie entspricht nicht unsere Alltagsmeinung und Intuition. Was sie aber nicht falsch macht. Wir erleben im Alltag nun mal so etwas wie die newtonsche Welt, sprich keine schnellen Bewegungen, keine kleine Skalen. Deshalb ist man auch lange Zeit so gut mit Newton gefahren. In weniger alltäglichen Situationen aber, wie etwa am Rande supermassiver schwarzer Löcher oder im Inneren eines Atoms, versagt Newtons Physik. Spätestens an dieser Stelle braucht es dann die Quantentheorie, und die Relativitätstheorie.

Stand: 2015

Kommentare: 175
  • #175

    Hiroji kurihara that (Dienstag, 31 Januar 2023 05:36)

    Local Inertial Frame ? (again)

    A homogenous disk is rotating vertically. Gravity from below. Therefore, inertial force (centrifugal force) and gravity act on each mass point of the disk. When the rotation speed of the disk exceeds a certain magnitude, a mass point appears where vector of inertial force and gravity are canceled (as total). But it is only natural. It seems to not be note worthy.

    In free falling elevator, mass point where vector of inertial force and gravity are canceled (as total) appears also. Physically, it would be the same phenomenon as a rotating disk.

  • #174

    Hiroji kurihara (Sonntag, 29 Januar 2023 09:04)

    Free Fall (Monologue)

    A large number of particles are floating in vacuum space. To our eyes, these are visible as a cube or an elevator cabin. Suddenly, a gravity source appears below and the elevator-like thing starts free-falling. As time passes, the elevator-like thing gradually changes its shape.

    The above can be explained by Newtonian mechanics.

  • #173

    Hiroji kurihara (Donnerstag, 26 Januar 2023 08:14)

    Inertial Resistance is not Fictitious (again)

    Not a few explanations of law of action and reaction begins with two bodies. Misleading explanation. This law is the law at point of action of force. And, it is the law that action and reaction are equal, and direction of force is opposite.

    A body is pulled by a string. At every point on the string, tension is the same. That is, action and reaction have the same magnitude and opposite directions. This is the same when the body is uniformly accelerated by the string. Both forces are true forces. It is Impossible that one (inertial resistance) is fictitious.

  • #172

    Hiroji kurihara (Dienstag, 24 Januar 2023 05:18)

    Inertial Resistance is not Fictitious (again).

    Let's review formulas, F = ma and F = mg.
    Dividing both sides by m gives a = F/m and g = F/m. Therefore, a = g.

    Thus, mass acting as gravity and mass acting as inertial force are (assumed to be) the same. Also, quantitatively as m. This is also guaranteed by Newton's third law of motion.

  • #171

    Hiroji kurihara (Sonntag, 22 Januar 2023 03:26)

    Inertial Force is not Fictitious (Continued)

    In previous post (17 Jan), both sides of formula F = ma are divided by m. Now, alternatively, F = ma are divided by a. Then, formula F/a = m is given. This will also show that a and ma will not be fictitious.

    Also, two formulas F = ma and F = mg may not be compatible with the assertion of gravitational mass and inertial mass ("Both are completely different phenomena" on Wikipedia "mass" in Japanese. Also, not be compatible with existence of two idioms).

  • #170

    Hiroji kurihara (Dienstag, 17 Januar 2023 02:17)

    Inertial force is not fictitious (is something wrong ?)

    Formula, F = ma, is well-known formula. Now, dividing both sides by m. It gives F/m = a. F on the left side is the force (external force) in "Newton". Both F and m are physical quantities. Both will not be fictitious. Therefore, a and inertial force ma will not be fictitious also. Is there anything wrong with the above ?

  • #169

    Hiroji kurihara (Sonntag, 15 Januar 2023 01:29)

    Inertial force is not fictitious (monologue)

    On a plane (no friction), there is a body mass 3m. It is pulled by a string from the left and is accelerated. Tension of the string F is 3ma. Now, suppose there is another body to the right of this body. Two bodies are tied with a string. Also suppose the mass of the left body be 2m and the mass of the right body be m. The force F that pulls the left string is the same. So, tension on the left string will be 3ma and tension on the right string will be ma.

  • #168

    Hiroji kurihara (Donnerstag, 12 Januar 2023 09:08)

    Newton's Third Law of Motion

    A body of mass m is suspended from ceiling by a string. From below, this body is pulled by another string. Tension of this string is 2 mg. So, the tension of upper string is 3 mg. That is, action-reaction of upper string is both 3 mg. Mass of the body is basically irrelevant.

  • #167

    Hiroji kurihara (Mittwoch, 11 Januar 2023 12:47)

    Inertial Force is not Fictitious (partially reposted)

    Gravity acts on everything equally. And if there is action, there is reaction. As stated by Newton’s third law of motion. Below are some examples.
    F = mg (free fall)
    F = normal reaction
    F = air resistance (falling at terminal speed)
    F = air resistance + inertial force (falling before terminal speed)

    Is F in F = mg fictitious ? The claim of fictitious will not hold.

  • #166

    Hiroji kurihara (Samstag, 07 Januar 2023 06:06)

    Motions Relative to Aether (monologue)


    1) Rotary motion: Two same disks are rotating. If the rotary speed is the same, the same inertial force will appear. Regardless of the direction of plane of rotation. It must be because of aether (homogeneous and isotropic).
    2) Curvilinear motion: Two same spheres move in curvilinear motion. Two curves are the same in size and shape. If two spheres move at the same uniform speed (from the same starting point), the same inertial force will appear. Regardless of the direction of curve. It must be because of aether (homogeneous and isotropic).
    3) Accelerated motion on straight lines: Two same spheres move on two straight lines. If motions are the same accelerated motion, the same inertial force will appear. Regardless of the direction of the straight line. It must be because of aether (homogeneous and isotropic).
    4) Uniform linear motion: Two same spheres move in uniform linear motion. Inertial forces do not appear. Regardless of the direction of straight line. It must be because of aether (homogeneous and isotropic).

  • #165

    Hiroji kurihara (Montag, 02 Januar 2023 09:38)

    Local Inertial Frame (Monologue)

    In all areas of a free-falling elevator, formula F ≒ ma ≠ 0, or F = ma ≠ 0 will consist. So, there will be no inertial frame, even locally.

    In a free-falling elevator (assumed to be a rigid body), coexistence of inertial frame and accelerated frame will be impossible, even locally.

  • #164

    Hiroji kurihara (Donnerstag, 29 Dezember 2022 04:19)

    Aberration on the Moon

    Major aberrations observable on the moon’s surface are four. Two are corresponding to daily, annual aberrations of earth. Two are annual, secular aberrations of earth themselves (in common). These four aberrations show that aberration are caused by the motion of the telescope on the moon’s surface relative to aether. Qualitatively, quantitatively. Motion of telescope is motion relative to aether.

    On the moon’s surface, a water-filled telescope will show what Airy imaged (but if light receiving surface is glass, it will follow the refractive index of the glass). Also on the moon’s surface, picture of tilted umbrella and rain drops (raindrops are photons) will be valid (invalid on earth).

  • #163

    Hiroji kurihara (Samstag, 24 Dezember 2022 10:34)

    Gravity and Time Dilation 

    There are two mirrors. One is on the ground, one is 22.6m above. These are facing each other. A laser beam is emitted downward from the left end of the upper mirror, forming letter W, and is coming to the upper right (beam is in vacuum). Frequency at five points will be the same. There will be no time dilation due to difference of gravity.

    Note) A few translated books say that (outline), when the distance between two points on the light path remains the same, the frequency of two points are the same (assuming frequency of the light source is constant).

  • #162

    Hiroji kurihara (Mittwoch, 21 Dezember 2022 07:53)

    About the speed of light (supplement to the post Dez 19)

    Plane waves and rays (photons) of light from the first-magnitude star, Sirius are propagating through outer space. An observer is moving in various motions. Speed of plane waves and light rays (photons) to the observer will be different (usually).

  • #161

    Hiroji kurihara (Montag, 19 Dezember 2022 09:28)

    About the Speed of Light

    For light that is propagated in aether, speed of light waves and ray (photons) relative to an observer will be different (usually). And, for light that is propagated according to emission theory, above will be the same (different also, usually).

  • #160

    Hiroji kurihara (Montag, 12 Dezember 2022 05:48)

    About the speed of light

    As for speed of light, constancy of speed of light, and the formula c = f λ seem to be all. But is it so simple ?

    A ray of light is propagating through aether. An observer is moving in a uniform linear motion lerative to this ray at various angle. The speed of the observer relative to aether is also varies. And, the observer's motion can be accelerated motion, jerk (on a straight line), or can be curvilinear motion. Besides, there will be areas where the propagation of light follows emission theory.

    In short, there will be no reason to treat light specially. It's so simple.

  • #159

    Hiroji kurihara .? (Samstag, 03 Dezember 2022 06:35)

    Inertial Force

    ◎ Inertial force is reaction of Newton's law of action-reaction (the third law of motion). It is not a fictitious force.
    ◎ In the entire elevator cabin in free-falling, gravity and inertial force are action and reaction. And the two are equal. So, it is not surprising that in this cabin, there is a local area where the magnitude of gravity and inertial force are equal. In this local area, magnitude of inertial force is not zero. That is, this local area is not an inertial frame.
    ◎ There are two points that are not in relative motion. It is impossible to say for one to be an inertial frame and for the other an accelerated frame. There can be no such thing as a local inertial frame.

  • #158

    Hiroji kurihara (Donnerstag, 01 Dezember 2022 12:15)

    Equivalence Principle

    When a mass point is accelerated, inertial force appears. Its vector can be at our will. On the other hand, gravity acting on a mass point is unrelated to the accelerated motion of this mass point. And, the vector is not at our will. In summary, inertial force and gravity are two different things, like water and oil (even if the vector of the two acting on a mass point happen to cancel each other out).

  • #157

    Hiroji kurihara (Sonntag, 27 November 2022 00:49)

    Equivalence Principle

    In free-falling elevator cabin, and at the specific local area, gravity and inertial force are equal in magnitude. This seems to be the reason for the equivalence principle. However, at many local area, gravity and inertial force are not equal in magnitude. Is it possible that the principle is based on this specific local area ?

  • #156

    Hiroji kurihara (Donnerstag, 24 November 2022 07:00)

    Inertial Force is not Fictitious Force

    Inertial force is not fictitious force. See, Newton’s third law of motion (law of action and reaction). Also see, formula F = ma in the second law of motion. This is a big problem.

    P.S. There are two types of motion: uniform linear motion and all other motions. In the latter, inertial forces appear during the motion, and corresponding to the motion.

  • #155

    Hiroji kurihara (Dienstag, 22 November 2022 08:16)

    Gleaning (wavenumber, invariant)

    In outer space, a starlight is coming. When an observer moves in the direction of light path, frequency varies. But, according to this, in the formula c = f λ, does wavelength λ vary ? Unbelievable !

    There is a word “wavenumber”. It is the number of waves in a unit length (1 cm or 1 m) and is called Kayser. Like 25,000 K (visible red). This wavenumber and wavelength are reciprocals of each other. Therefore, since the wavenumber is an invariant, the wavelength will also be an invariant. That is, the wavelength cannot be varied with the motion of an observer. It is the speed of light that varies.

  • #154

    Hiroji kurihara (Dienstag, 22 November 2022 01:03)

    Gleaning (wavenumber, invariant)

    In outer space, a starlight is coming. When an observer moves in the direction of light path, frequency varies. But, according to this, in the formula c = f λ, does wavelength λ vary ? Unbelievable !

    There is a word "wavenumber". It is the number of waves in a unit length (1 cm or 1 m) and is called Kayser. Like 25,000 K (visible red). This wavenumber and wavelength are reciprocals of each other. Therefore, since the wavenumber is an invariant, the wavelength will also be an invariant. That is, the wavelength cannot be varied with the motion of an observer. It is the speed of light that varies.

  • #153

    Hiroji kurihara (Mittwoch, 16 November 2022 09:48)

    Light is Propagated in Two Ways (supplement to the 15th post)

    ◎ Statings on the formula: c = f λ are from the view point of the mirror (stationery or in uniform linear motion).
    ◎ Light will follow the emission theory for a few seconds only, after leaving light source. And then light follows aether.

  • #152

    Hiroji kurihara (Dienstag, 15 November 2022 05:29)

    Light is Propagated in Two Ways
                
    In outer space, a starlight is reflected by a mirror. There is a formula c = f λ. Now, the mirror is stationary. In comparing of incident light and reflected light, f is the same. And usually, c & λ are different.                   

    Now, the mirror moves in the direction of the light path of incident light. In the formula on incident light, λ is constant. And c & f will be variables. And in the formula on reflected light, c is constant. And f & λ will be variables.

  • #151

    Hiroji kurihara (Samstag, 12 November 2022 08:17)

    Binary Star & Aether

    Speed of light coming from approaching and receding stars of binary star is the same. This will be one of evidence of the existence of aether.
    Note: However, as for evidence, aberrations (caused by motions of Earth relative to aether) will be more definite.

  • #150

    Hiroji kurihara (Freitag, 11 November 2022 00:21)

    Murmur, Again

    Starlight is coming from outer space. When an observer moves in the direction of the light path, frequency of the starlight varies. For light, there is a formula c = f λ. Which one, c or λ, varies with the above frequency varying ?

  • #149

    Hiroji kurihara (Montag, 07 November 2022 02:22)

    An Intermittent Ray of Light

    Imagine that an incoming star light is intermittent (on and off: by human work). An observer is observing this ray of light. It will be certain that observer’s motion (in the light ray direction) does not affect anything of coming ray (intermittency, wavelength, amplitude, waveform, etc). So, in the equation c = f λ, it is f and c that vary for the moving observer.

  • #148

    Hiroji kurihara (Sonntag, 06 November 2022 01:31)

    A Light clock

    A light clock is working in a moving passenger car. Light path of light clock is illustrated vertically (in drawings). But this light clock leans somewhat to the right (or to left). So, to an observer stands on the ground, zigzag of light path (saw-tooth like) warps. Two kinds of dilation ? And if two clocks work, and these lean differs ?

  • #147

    Hiroji kurihara (Freitag, 04 November 2022 04:51)

    Absolute Rest Frame & Aether Frame

    It would be easy to reveal the aether frame by optical means. By measuring aether drift. On the other hand, non-accelerated motion, accelerated motion (uniform linear motion and all other motions) of bodies are distinguished. And accelerating bodies show inertial forces. This is probably due to absolute rest frame. Aether frame and absolute rest frame each will probably be one and only, homogeneous, isotropic. And perhaps the two are the same frame. One thing two functions. Surprising.

  • #146

    Hiroji kurihara (Mittwoch, 02 November 2022 02:50)

    Absolute Rest Frame

    Newton's Bucket" is a thought experiment that assumes the existence of absolute rest frame because of the rotational motion accompanied by inertial forces. Let's take the thought experiment one step further. Inertial force must occur by "all motions except uniform linear motion" of a body with respect to absolute rest frame. Without exception. And inertial force is real existence in physics.
    Note: Uniform linear motion and other motions can be superposed. And, superposition is very universal.

  • #145

    Hiroji kurihara (Samstag, 29 Oktober 2022 02:46)

    Absolute Rest Frame (proposal)    

    Accelerated motion, non-accelerated motion (uniform linear motion) and combined motions of a body all will be motions relative to absolute rest frame.
    1) Uniform linear motion of a body is through.
    2) Accelerated motion of a body will have corresponding inertial force.

    Absolute rest frame can be easily measured (as aether drift) using light.

  • #144

    Hiroji kurihara (Sonntag, 23 Oktober 2022 00:53)

    Relativity of Simultaneity

    On the moon's surface, a passenger car is moving to the right. From the point at the center of ceiling, light rays are emitted at 45 degrees downward to the left and right. So, on the floor, there are two points of light. Position of two points are symmetrical for an observer in the car and stands on the moon's surface. This drawing should be understood by the emission theory.

  • #143

    Hiroji kurihara (Dienstag, 18 Oktober 2022 03:39)

    Gravitational Acceleration

    Gravitational acceleration is a compound word. But is it worth it? About acceleration, what is special ? Nothing, will be.

  • #142

    Hiroji kurihara (Samstag, 15 Oktober 2022 03:22)

    Equivalence Principle

    An elevator cabin is slowly falling due to gravity of an asteroid below. In addition, a rope is extending below the elevator cabin, and the rope is under artificial tension. Let us assume that acceleration g due to gravity (uniform acceleration) is equal to acceleration a due to tension. The equivalence principle should be forgotten.

  • #141

    Hiroji kurihara (Montag, 10 Oktober 2022 10:23)

    Elevator Cabin and Inertial Frame

    On a plane (no friction), an elevator cabin is accelerated horizontally by tension of a rope. Tension of rope is controlled so that horizontal acceleration is the same as free fall. Not only at infinite small area (local area), but also on whole area of this elevator cabin is inertial frame ?

  • #140

    Hiroji kurihara (Montag, 03 Oktober 2022 01:32)

    Aether (repost)

    All kinds of aberration are caused by motion of Earth. Qualitatively, quantitatively. For example, cycle of annual aberration is 365 days. It is reflection of motion of Earth. On the other hand, any motion of star's side has no influence. Only position on the celestial sphere is valid. These facts will be explainable only by aether.

    For an observer stationary with respect to the aether frame, there will be no aberration.

  • #139

    Hiroji kurihara (Freitag, 30 September 2022 01:36)

    Local Inertial Frame (repost) 

    Inertial frame or non-accelerating frame, is a frame that is non-accelerating with respect to aether. So, in free-falling elevator, there is no inertial frame, even locally. Term “local inertial frame” will be nonsense.

    In the elevator, equal acceleration due to falling is acting on every mass point. There are no exceptions. Even locally.

    There can be composition or partial composition of inertial force and gravity. But the two are inviolable to each other. Inviolable, qualitatively and quantitatively.

  • #138

    Hiroji kurihara (Mittwoch, 28 September 2022 03:36)

    Michelson-Morley Experiment

    In a book Theory of Relativity by Pauli, W 1958, it’s written as follows (quoted from English version ; in 1-6). “Rather should one say that for an observer moving with medium, light is propagated as usual with velocity c/n in all directions”. It seems to be the “very and true explanation” for M-M experiment (done in air) !!

    There is Einstein’s saying the same as above Pauli’s. Therefore, probably, he said that he didn’t know M-M experiment (and he mutters, “M-M experiment (done in air) is nonsense and I have no obligation to talk about it”).

  • #137

    Hiroji kurihara (Mittwoch, 28 September 2022 01:59)

    Does Aether Exist ?

    Two spacecrafts are sailing from left to right in outer space. It is as far apart as Mars. Speeds are v and 2v. Two spacecraft flash at the same and long time interval. What is interval between the position of flashes on the celestial sphere as seen from the Earth ?

  • #136

    Hiroji kurihara (Sonntag, 25 September 2022 05:07)

    Secular aberration

    This is what comes into my mind. Three aberrations; daily, annual, and secular seem to form a closed necklace drawn in one stroke. Pearl are 365 (assuming star is visible even during day time).

    The star change its position at all times. Trajectory drawn on celestial sphere in one year will not be a ellipse but be an extended necklace with pearls.

  • #135

    Hiroji kurihara (Dienstag, 20 September 2022 01:50)

    About Light

    In outer space, frequency and wavelength of two star lights (coming from the opposite direction) are measured (at the same time). Sum of the speed of two lights will be constant. It is 2c or close to 2c.

    Above shows that in outer space, light is propagated relative to aether. And, speed of light relative to an observer is not constant.

  • #134

    Hiroji kurihara (Mittwoch, 14 September 2022 23:27)

    Moon and Sun (Hypothesis: Restated)

    Assume that sun’s light follows emission theory for a few seconds only. Matter of those on few seconds will be indistinguishable from earth. That is, sun is being in aether. So, light-time correction. And, light-time correction will be offset by secular aberration.

    Assume that moon’s light follows emission theory for a few seconds only. So, visible position of moon is exactly where it is. Just like sun. But the mechanism will be different.

  • #133

    Hiroji kurihara (Montag, 12 September 2022 02:24)

    Equivalence Principle ?

    A body is suspended by a string from roof of a passengercar. The same two passengercars started at the same jerk at the same time. Tension of string is increasing, and string broke at about the same time (for both person in the car and on on the ground). Inertial force and gravity will not be equivalent.

  • #132

    Hiroji kurihara (Samstag, 10 September 2022 00:21)

    Equivalence Principle

    Starting is to accept inertial forces as inertial forces. In a free-fall elevator, inertial force and gravity acting on the entire cabin is equal. As Newton’s third law of motion shows. Magnitudes of inertial force and gravity acting on each mass point (assume fluid) in elevator are as shown by Newton. That’s all.

    Eh, the equivalence principle? Will be worthless at all.

  • #131

    Hiroji kurihara (Freitag, 09 September 2022 00:58)

    Inertial Force is not Fictitious
     
    In addition to acceleration, there are jerk, snap, etc. And accordingly, inertial force must be varied. Inertial force cannot be fictitious.

    There must be absolute rest frame, so there are acceleration, jerk, snap, etc. In wikipedia (Japanese), in “Acceleration”, there is a table titled “Comparison of magnitude of acceleration”. Many examples of acceleration are shown in 18 division by magnitude.

  • #130

    Hiroji kurihara (Dienstag, 06 September 2022 04:36)

    Inertial Force is not Fictitious

    The same five bodies (mass m) are lined up sideways on a horizontal plane. Five bodies are tied with strings. Assume that horizontal plane is zero friction, and mass of strings is zero. On right most body, force of 5ma is acting and five bodies start a uniform linear accelerating motion toward the right. Tension acting on four strings are, from right to left, 4ma, 3ma, 2ma, and 1ma. For any observer.

  • #129

    Hiroji kurihara (Donnerstag, 25 August 2022 03:08)

    Accelerated Motion is not Fictitious

    A horizontally long container is filled with fluid. This container is being accelerated to the right. In the container, pressure of the fluid will be high on the left and low on the right (effect of gravity is separated question). Accelerated motion is not fictitious.

    But is this worth writing down ?

  • #128

    Hiroji kurihara (Mittwoch, 17 August 2022 05:18)

    Equivalence Principle

    On a mass point, two forces of equal magnitude are acting from the left and right. Two forces are tension, gravity, and inertial force. Wnen, left and right are not distinguished, there are five possible combinations (there is no combination of inertia force and inertia force). Is the equivalence principle still insisted upon ?

  • #127

    Hiroji kurihara (Donnerstag, 21 Juli 2022 00:17)

    Perihelion Shift of Mercury (an essay)

    Shift is smooth, like a hand of clock. Mainly, it will be two-body problem.

  • #126

    Hiroji kurihara (Samstag, 09 Juli 2022 11:01)

    Perihelion Shift of Mercury (an essay)

    Centrifugal force is inertial force and cannot be the first cause of perihelion shift. The 99-101 effect mentioned above (tentative naming: contrary to Newton's spherical shell theorem) will be caused by size of Mercury, size of Sun, and distance between Mercury and Sun. On Mercury, these have effect on gravity and it will be the first cause. And then, direction of elliptical orbit may be shifted. At perihelion, this effect will be greatest.

    Magnitude of perihelion shift of planets with satellite is far superior. This is probably because gravity of Sun acting on satellite in half orbit close to Sun is far superior.


Impressum | Datenschutz | Cookie-Richtlinie | Sitemap
Diese Website darf gerne zitiert werden, für die Weiterverwendung ganzer Texte bitte ich jedoch um kurze Rücksprache.