Die Relativitätstheorie befasst sich mit der Struktur von Raum und Zeit, dem Verhalten von Masse in selbigen (SRT) und setzt das alles in Abhängigkeit zur Gravitation (ART).
Anfang des 20. Jahrhunderts fußte das naturwissenschaftliche Verständnis von Raum, Zeit und Gravitation noch auf der newtonschen Physik. Die newtonsche Physik malte uns ein Bild des Universums mit Raum und Zeit als absolute, d.h. unveränderliche und voneinander unabhängige Größen. Die Gravitation zeichnete er als Kraft zwischen zwei Massepunkten.
In den Jahren von 1905 bis 1916 erfuhren diese Auffassungen dann eine radikale Revolution, ausgelöst durch eben jene Relativitätstheorie. Der theoretische Physiker Albert Einstein war maßgeblich an ihr beteiligt.
Die nächsten Abschnitte werden versuchen, die Grundlagen der Relativitätstheorie zusammenzufassen. Dabei muss der Prägnanz wegen auf Erläuterungen und Details verzichtet werden. Sie finden jedoch unter jedem Abschnitt Hinweise zu weiterführende Aufsätze. Falls Sie sich also näher für eines der aufregenden Phänomene der RT interessieren, klicken Sie sich einfach weiter.
Häufig wird behauptet, Einstein habe Newton widerlegt. Das ist falsch, er verbesserte ihn lediglich durch eine allgemeinere Theorie. Mit seiner speziellen Relativitätstheorie entlarvte Albert Einstein nämlich Raum, Zeit und Bewegung als relative Größen. Die newtonsche Physik war damit entthront und ist in Einsteins Theorie nur noch als ein besonderer Grenzfall enthalten.
Doch nicht nur das, die spezielle Relativitätstheorie kann uns auch zeigen, dass Raum und Zeit gar nicht unabhängig voneinander existieren. Vielmehr verschmelzen die beiden in der SRT zu einer einheitlichen Raumzeit .
Auch die Masse M und die Energie E erwiesen sich in ihrer weltbekannten Gleichung (s.o.) als zwei Seiten derselben Medaille. Zusammengehalten werden diese schließlich noch durch die Lichtgeschwindigkeit C, die entgegen allen anderen relativen Bewegungen und Geschwindigkeiten immer konstant und unabhängig vom Bezugsystem ist .
Elf Jahre später entwarf Einstein seine Allgemeine Relativitätstheorie. Diese berücksichtigt auch die Fälle, in denen die Gravitation eine Rolle spielt. In zehn Feldgleichungen verwarf Einstein den newtonschen Gedanken, Gravitation sei eine Kraft, die sich ohne Zeitverlust ausbreite. Anstelle dessen fasst er die Gravitation als Eigenschaft der gekrümmten Raumzeit auf. Materie krümmt das Raumzeit-Kontinuum und so entsteht Schwerkraft.
Das Schwerefeld kann man sich wie eine unsichtbare, gespannte Gummihaut vorstellen. Liegt nun ein massereicher Körper, etwa eine Sonne, in ihm, wird sie gekrümmt. Dementsprechend drückt sich auch die Gummihaut ein, wenn man einen Ball auf sie legt. Infolge der derart modifizierten Geometrie der Raumzeit ändert sich sogar der augenscheinlich so geradlinige Verlauf der Lichtstrahlen, die von den Massekörpern ausgehen. Erfasst vom Schwerefeld sucht sich der Lichtstrahl nun einen neuen, kürzstmöglichen Weg. Aus diesem Grund können wir auch noch die Sterne sehen, die sich eigentlich knapp hinter dem Sonnenrand verbergen.
Man kann sich wieder und wieder mit der Relativitätstheorie befassen und wird trotzdem niemals zu dem Gefühl kommen, alle ihre Konsequenzen durchgedacht zu haben. So geht es zumindest mir, immer wieder aufs Neue stehe ich vor Situationen, bei denen ich nicht weiß, wie man sie sich gemäß der RT denken soll. Oder die einem immer noch extrem komisch und unreal vorkommen.
Dabei lassen sich die Vorgänge und Eigenschaften innerhalb der Relativitätstheorie mathematisch unglaublich präzise beschreiben und gehören zu den bestbestätigten in der Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften. Dies klassifiziert sie, zusammen mit der Quantentheorie , als eine der besten Theorien der Gegenwart.
Zusammen mit der Quantentheorie stellt die Relativitätstheorie eine der zwei tragenden Säulen der modernen Physik dar. Beide gingen ursprünglich aus der newtonschen Physik hervor, enthalten diese immer noch als Spezialfall und erfüllen somit das Korrespondenzprinzip. Die Bemühungen vieler Physiker gelten dieser Tage der Vereinigung dieser beiden Säulen, wobei meist versucht wird die Relativitätstheorie in die Quantentheorie zu integrieren, und nicht andersrum.
In den Quantenfeldtheorien konnte man bereits die spezielle Relativitätstheorie mit der Quantentheorie und im Rahmen des heutigen Standardmodells der Physik einen. Der noch außenstehenden Quantentheorie, die auch noch die allgemeine Relativitätstheorie bzw. die Gravitation mit ins Boot nimmt, will man dann den Namen Quantengravitationstheorie geben.
Stand: 2015
Hiroji kurihara (Freitag, 24 November 2023 08:58)
Sorry, I made mistake......
http://lifeafterdeath.vip/eng.html
Hiroji kurihara (Freitag, 24 November 2023 01:51)
Allow me to show URL of my web-site.This is last modified on 2019-2-10.
http://www.geocities.co.jp/Technopolis/2561/eng.html
Hiroji kurihara (Freitag, 10 November 2023 03:35)
Title of the page of the National astronomical observatory (of Japan) ephemeris computation office is shown below. Sorry for repeated addition.
暦Wiki/近日点の移動－国立天文台暦計算室
Hiroji kurihara (Dienstag, 07 November 2023 01:06)
A web-site with figures related to problem below appears using following keywords. Sorry, in Japanese.
近日点の移動 国立天文台暦計算室
Hiroji kurihara (Montag, 06 November 2023 00:15)
To yesterday’s post, following my posts are related.
Aug 6, Sep 23, (2023).
Hiroji kurihara (Sonntag, 05 November 2023 06:58)
Shift of Perihelion and Vernal Equinox of Earth (fake ?)
A drawing shows Sun, Earth, and orbit of Earth. It also shows shift of perihelion of Earth (in the direction of revolution, annually) and shift of vernal equinox (in the opposite direction of revolution, annually). Shift of vernal equinox is said to be caused by precession of rotation axis (of Earth). Precession of rotation axis ? Really ? Shift of vernal equinox seems to be caused by extra centrifugal force due to size of the Earth. There is no other reason than that it seems to fit well.
Note: Perihelion is said to take about 110,000 years, and vernal equinox takes about 26,000 years to complete one revolution.
Hiroji kurihara (Donnerstag, 26 Oktober 2023 03:13)
Perihelion Shift of Mercury (and free fall)
Towards Earth, two bodies with the same mass are in free fall. One is assumed to be a single point (with no size), and the other is a long pole (falling vertically). Also assumed that gravity of Earth is constant at g. As posted formerly, magnitude of gravity of Earth acting on two bodies will be former < latter slightly. As example, in my former post, it was 0.04 < 0.0400479. So latter continues to fall in advance. In a broad sense, orbital motion is considered to be free fall. It seems that the shift of perihelion of Mercury is caused by its size.
P.S. See 0.0400497 as problem presentation. It is also problem presentation to Newton's spherical shell theorem.
Hiroji kurihara (Montag, 23 Oktober 2023 04:47)
Perihelion Shift of Mercury (supplement)
Imagine that two Mercurys are revolving in the orbit of Venus and Neptune. At two perihelions, Mercury moves in the same vector (direction and speed) as Venus and Neptune. Magnitude of Mercury's shift of perihelion will be smaller than that of the two. Because size of Mercury is smaller than that of the two.
Hiroji kurihara (Donnerstag, 19 Oktober 2023 07:14)
Perihelion Shift of Mercury (continued)
Imagine Mercury is revolving in the orbit of Neptune. Size of Mercury seen from Sun is almost a single point. So, magnitude of perihelion shift as two-body problem will be slight. And are perturbations outstanding ?
Hiroji kurihara of (Dienstag, 17 Oktober 2023 08:12)
Perihelion Shift of Mercury (estimate)
Two Mercurys are revolving. One is in the orbit of Mercury and the other is in the orbit of Venus. In the former, magnitude of shift of perihelion seems to be larger. This is probably because effect of Mercury's size is greater in the former.
Hiroji kurihara (Sonntag, 08 Oktober 2023 07:14)
Perihelion Shift of Mercury (rewritten)
Allow me to rewrite my previous post (Sep 29 and around).
Shift of perihelion is constant. Then, a doubt arises. What is momentum of Mercury ? Is it increasing ? Is it decreasing ? Is there no increase or decrease ?
Hiroji kurihara (Freitag, 29 September 2023 07:33)
Perihelion Shift of Mercury (imagine)
Size of Mercury will increase Mercury’s gravity. The main result will be slight expansion of orbit, and followed by shift in perihelion. Therefore, centrifugal force also increases. Newton’s third law of motion will be inviolable.
Hiroji kurihara (Dienstag, 26 September 2023 07:11)
Perihelion Shift of Mercury (supplement)
Size of Mercury will cause the difference in its gravity and in its orbit. It will rotate long axis and shift perihelion (in the direction of revolution).
But, will size of Mercury cause difference in its centrifugal force ? This difference probably correspond to the difference in motion (caused by difference in gravity).
Note) How does gravity cause bodies to move ? In phenomenon such as perihelion shift of Mercury, we seem not to grasp it enough.
Hiroji kurihara (Samstag, 23 September 2023 06:09)
Perihelion Shift of Mercury (rewritten, from my post, posted on Sep 16 or around)
There is a figure of Mercury and its orbit. Mercury is drawn as a single point. But actually, Mercury has a size, and this size will slightly increase magnitude of gravity and centrifugal force of Mercury. Now, limit our consideration to half of orbit from perihelion to aphelion. Increase in gravity will shift aphelion in the direction of revolution. On the other hand, increase in centrifugal force will shift aphelion in the opposite direction of revolution. In increase, gravity will exceed.
Hiroji kurihara (Freitag, 22 September 2023 05:01)
Perihelion Shift of Mercury
There is one more problem. Size of Mercury send out surplus force. But where does this surplus force go ?
In figure of perihelion shift of Mercury, its destination seems not to be found. Ah, perhaps the same phenomenon as Moon's retreat (Moon's orbit is expanding) will be destination. This surplus force probably turns and expands Mercury's elliptical orbit each time.
Hiroji kurihara (Montag, 18 September 2023 06:56)
Perihelion Shift of Mercury
[Size of Mercury increases gravity during orbital motion]
Mm/r^2 is formula for gravity. There are models for Mercury and Sun. When, 2Mm is 100 and r is 50, gravity is 0.04. Next, two spheres (with half of mass of Mercury) are lined up on the line of action of Sun's gravity. Mm is 50, r is 49 and 51. Then, gravity is 0.0400479.
[Size of Mercury increases centrifugal force during orbital motion]
See my post posted on March 15, 2023 (or around).
Hiroji kurihara (Samstag, 16 September 2023 04:03)
Perihelion Shift of Mercury
Size of Mercury will increase gravity and increase centrifugal force quolitatively also. Of the two, gravity is probably the main factor. Because, increase in gravity shift aphelion in the direction of revolution. On the other hand, increase in centrifugal force shift aphelion in the opposite direction of revolution.
The formula for gravity F = mM/r^2 probably shows that magnitude of gravity is related to the size of Mercury (but surprisingly small).
Hiroji kurihara (Samstag, 09 September 2023 06:41)
Moon’s Retreat
Moon is said to be moving away from Earth by several centimeters per year. As proposed formally (posted on 06 August, by me), size of Moon will increase its centrifugal force (compared to calculated as a point). This additional amount will be divided in rotation of long axis and in extension of long axis of orbit of Moon. Is Mercury moving away from Sun too ?
Hiroji kurihara of (Freitag, 08 September 2023 07:46)
Decelerated Motion
From a passenger car moving to the right, a rope is extending to left, and on it, constant tension is acting. Then, the passenger car is decelerating. And, when the ground speed of passenger car falls in zero, tension of the rope is still constant. So passenger car starts accelerating to the left. But, there will be no difference in situation in before and after in the passenger car. There will not be much meaning in the ground speed of passenger car.
As written above, everything is accelerated motion and decelerated motion does not exist. But “counter-jerk motion” where degree of accelerated motion withdrawing may be possible.
Hiroji kurihara (Sonntag, 06 August 2023 01:13)
Perihelion Shift of Mercury (rewritten)
In a figure, Mercury is drown as a circle. In addition, in the figure, center of the circle and an arc extending vertically through the center are drown. Arc is a part of orbit. The arc divides Mercury into left and right, and the area is left > right (Sun is in the right). This figure shows that actual magnitude of the centrifugal force exceeds magnitude calculated for Mercury as a point (see formula of centrifugal force, ignore rotation). Perihelion shift of Mercury may be due to Mercury's size.
Hiroji kurihara (Donnerstag, 27 Juli 2023 03:04)
Newton’s Spherical Shell Theorem (correction)
In my previous post (21 Mars 2023), Mercury is divided into two spheres. But this thought experiment doesn’t seem to hold. Surprising ! It does not disprove Newton’s spherical shell theorem ! So, my hope is shifted in another thought experiment on centrifugal force.
Hiroji kurihara (Dienstag, 18 Juli 2023 03:16)
Newton’s Three Laws of Motion
Uniform linear motion (aether can be emerged in an optical way), uniform circular motion, inertial force, action and reaction are all existence graspable qualitatively and quantitatively. These are not fictitious.
Hiroji kurihara (Dienstag, 11 Juli 2023 23:10)
Speed of Light
This is supplement to the former post .(20 Feb 2023). Half of measurement results of speed of light waves will exceed c.
Hiroji kurihara (Freitag, 07 Juli 2023 04:41)
Speed of Gravity Propagation
Speed of gravity propagation is said to be the same to speed of light. But is it true ? Something can’t be found in thought experiments ? How about Sun and Mercury ? Solar system is said to move in the direction called sun facing point (on the celestial sphere). So position from which gravitational force of Sun acting Mercury will be the position some back in time. If so, this effect will slightly acuumlate (like free falling).
In Encyclopaedia Britannica 1969, there is a passage as follows (in item “Gravitation” ; original text). “If the action of gravitation were not absolutely instantaneous”(omission)”All experiments and observations were, however, consistent with the law, from the short distances employed in laboratory experiments to the long ranges used in interplanetary calculations”. It says, action will be instantaneous.
Hiroji kurihara (Mittwoch, 05 Juli 2023 04:20)
Centrifugal Force is not Fictitious
About centrifugal force, allow me to post onece more. A disk and the same ten spheres (evenly spaced around the disk) are rotating on a plane (no friction). Spheres and outer edge of the disk are connected with strings of the same length. Each string will show the same tension. Tension will be a sign that centrifugal force is not fictitious.
Note) Centrifugal force and centripetal force will work on the string (on every point) as Newton's third law of motion.
Hiroji kurihara (Dienstag, 04 Juli 2023 07:46)
Centrifugal Force is not Fictitious
Allow me to alter some of previous post. Previous setting was four spheres and two rods. Now, on two spheres and one rod (in X direction only), mass is two times (without deflection). Then, at close to the center, magnitude of centrifugal force and centripetal force will be about two times. Also, magnitude of centrifugal force and centripetal force will correspond to rotational speed.
Hiroji kurihara (Dienstag, 04 Juli 2023 04:01)
Inertial Resistance/Inertial Force (rewritten)
Every mass point is placed in aether frame. When it is forced to move other than uniform linear motion (including zero speed) relative to aether frame, it shows resistance called inertial resistance. Inertial resistance is commonly said to be inertial force. Inertial force will correspond to the motion of mass in aether frame, qualitatively, quantitatively.
Hiroji kurihara (Montag, 03 Juli 2023 05:10)
Centrifugal Force is not Fictitious
The same four spheres, connected to the ends of two rods are rotating on a plane (no friction). Asuume the bar as a cross and the whole as a disk. At any point on the rod, magnitudes of the centrifugal force and centripetal force are equal, as shown by Newton’s third law of motion. That is, centrifugal force (and centripetal also) is not fictitious to an observer in any frame.
P.S. Original text of the third law is said, it is not on two bodies, but on every point of action of force.
Hiroji kurihara (Sonntag, 02 Juli 2023 00:47)
Gravitational Acceleration
Well, “gravitational acceleration” is “magnitude of gravity on the surface of Earth ?” asked an Alien
Idiom (compound word) “gravitational acceleration” seems to be meaningful only in limited situationon. Free fall, gravity at the surface of Earth, etc. Is it an idiom of physics ?
If gravity and inertial force are different things, gravity and acceleration are also different things. Will there be qualification of idiom ?
Hiroji kurihara (Mittwoch, 28 Juni 2023 03:49)
Inertial Force is not Fictitious
Gravity acts on a body as a vector. At a local area in free falling elevator, vector of gravity and vector of inertial force (vector of action, not of existence) will cancel each other. In that case, inertial force will not be fictitious.
Hiroji kurihara (Samstag, 24 Juni 2023 05:48)
Inertial Force and Gravity are Different Things (additional)
In light of the followings, inertial force and gravity will not be equivalent.
◎ Inertial force: It is emerged in an accelerated motion (of a mass point) in space.
◎ Gravity: It does not emerge in an accelerated motion (of a mass point) in space.
Hiroji kurihara (Donnerstag, 22 Juni 2023 08:35)
Inertial Force and Gravity are Different Things (additional)
It is argued that inertial force and gravity are equivalent. However, in light of the followings, the two will not be equivalent. Even if vectors as action cancel each other out, vectors as existence do not disappear. Qualitatively, quantitatively. These are composing and decomposing of forces.
◎ Inertial force corresponds to accelerated motion of a mass point in homogeneous isotropic space.
◎ Gravity corresponds to position of a mass potint in space modified by gravitational fields.
Hiroji kurihara (Sonntag, 18 Juni 2023 08:03)
Inertial Force and Gravity are Different Things (rewritten)
◎ Inertia Force
1) Between inertial force and motion of a mass point in space, there will be direct connection.
2) Position in space has no meaning. Space is homogeneous isotropic.
3) Absolute space is required.
◎ Gravity
1) Between gravity and motion of a mass point in space, there will be no direct connection.
2) Position in space has meaning. As a gravitational field. Space is not homogeneous isotropic.
3) Absolute space is not required.
Hiroji kurihara (Mittwoch, 14 Juni 2023 02:14)
Local Inertial Frame (additional)
A homogeneous cuboid made of atomic silver (atomic weight 107.9) is in free falling. Magnitude of inertial force acting on every silver atom is the same. There can be no local inertial frame.
Hiroji kurihara (Samstag, 10 Juni 2023 03:26)
Local Inertial Frame (rewritten)
An elevator cabin is in free falling. Let's assume that every local frame of this cabin is the same (mass m). There can be no local inertial frame.
Hiroji kurihara (Dienstag, 06 Juni 2023 07:28)
Inertial Force and Gravity are Different Things
1) For inertial force, space is homogeneous isotropic. Gravity is not (gravitational field exsists).
2) For inertial force, every position in space is the same. Gravity is not (gravitational field exsists).
Hiroji kurihara (Freitag, 19 Mai 2023 05:16)
Local Inertial Frame (again)
Every mass point is either in an inertial (unaccelerated) frame or accelerated frame. If a rigid homogeneous cuboid is in free-falling, every mass point is in accelerated frame. In this cuboid, there can be no inertial frame, even locally.
P.S. This difference is not fictitious but absolute.
Hiroji kurihara (Mittwoch, 17 Mai 2023 03:37)
Correction (on today’s post : on the third note)
A starlight > A light source
Hiroji kurihara (Mittwoch, 17 Mai 2023 01:03)
Two Formulas for Speed of Light (in vacuum)
First formula, v=fλ: It is speed of light relative to aether, and v is constant. Area is where light follows aether frame. That is, more than a few light seconds away from light source.
Second formula, c=fλ; It is speed of light relative to light source, and c is constant. Area is where light follows emission theory. That is, within a few light seconds from light source.
Note) First formula is the same as formula for the speed of sound in air (depending on f and λ).
Note) In outer space, a starlight is passing through a tube. In the center of the tube, a plate of glass is placed. In front of the glass, the starlight follows aether frame, and in back of it, starlight follows emission theory.
Note) A starlight is moving in aether. It is possible that v and c move at the same speed. Usually, v will be below c.
Note) For a moving observer, speed of light must be reconsidered (starting with the Doppler effect).
Hiroji kurihara (Freitag, 12 Mai 2023 01:27)
Speed of Light Varies
On the Moon's surface, plane waves of Sunlight are arriving horizontally from above to two passenger cars. There is a small pinhole at the center of ceiling of two passenger cars, and on the floor, there is a spot of light that passed through pinhole.
Two passenger cars are moving on the Moon's surface at different speeds (in x direction). For an observer inside the passenger car, position of light spot on the floor will be different. This difference in position will be the same for an observer stands on the Moon's surface.
Hiroji kurihara (Sonntag, 07 Mai 2023 01:58)
Gravity (gravitational field) and Time
There is optical path of triangle ABC with top A of tall tower and mirror BC placed on the ground (as vertices). Laser light emitted from light source set at A (frequency is constant) is reflected by BC and returns to A. Frequencies of laser light at ABC will be the same. Time dilation due to gravity will be impossible.
Hiroji kurihara (Freitag, 05 Mai 2023 02:09)
Pinhole Camera
In outer space, a starlight is coming from the right. This ray enters the pinhole of a pinhole camera and is reflected upward by a mirror set at 45 degrees upwards in the camera.
When the camera moves to the right or left (at a uniform speed), the position where reflected light hits the upper inner wall of the camera will move. Incident light is propagated in aether, and reflected light follows emission theory.
Note: Speed of lincident light and rleflected light relative to the mirror are generally different. So, angle of the two are also. λ are also).
Hiroji kurihara (Donnerstag, 04 Mai 2023 02:21)
Apology and Cancellation
My recent posts 29 April seem to be invalid. Sorry.
Hiroji kurihara (Samstag, 29 April 2023 07:41)
Aether
In outer space, three pinhole cameras are pointed in X, Y and Z directions (these are in uniform linear motion, the same as Sun). Cameras are pretty large. In the camera, on the inner wall, on the opposite side of the pinhole, disks rotate once and receiving position of star lights are recorded.
Recorded position of star lights on three disks will not be true circle. These may indicate motion of the pinhole cameras relative to aether.
Hiroji kurihara (Donnerstag, 27 April 2023 05:21)
Mars & Aether
Annual aberration of Mars is based on its revolution period of 1.881 years and average orbital speed of 28.07 km/sec. That is, aberration is mainly caused by motion of observer relative to the aether. Qualitatively and quantitatively. Needless to explain.
Other aberrations of Mars are also.
Hiroji kurihara (Donnerstag, 13 April 2023 08:53)
Equivalence Principle
Two bodies of the same mass m tied by a fairly long string are in free fall to Jupiter. Two bodeies are back and forth, and increasing tension of the string is informed to Earth. Inertial force and gravity are different things.
Comet Shoemaker-Levy, which fell to Jupiter in 1994. It was broken into at least 21 pieces in falling.
Hiroji kurihara (Donnerstag, 13 April 2023 04:37)
Equivalence principle (as an impression)
In laboratory experiment, inertial force is something that we can control. In a laboratory called thought experiment, we can control falling of an elevator cabin also. On the other hand, it seems that gravity is beyond our reach. In other words, inertial force and gravity will be different things.
Even outside laboratory (whether within our reach or not), inertial force and gravity may be different thing.
Hiroji kurihara (Donnerstag, 13 April 2023 02:38)
Perihelion Shift of Mercury (long axis)
Long axis of Mercury’s orbit is slowly rotating. That is, Mercury will follow an orbit outside its previous orbit after passing either perihelion or aphelion (for some extent). This is not so for perihelion in many figures.
Hiroji kurihara (Mittwoch, 12 April 2023 04:37)
Perihelion Shift of Mercury (again)
In many figures, Mercury's orbit is outside the previous orbit for some extent after aphelion, and inside for some extent after perihelion. Unacceptable.
Hiroji kurihara (Dienstag, 11 April 2023 02:53)
Perihelion Shift of Mercury (unfamiliar figure)
I found a figure unfamiliar on web. About two Mercury's orbits are shown. New orbit is outside the previous orbit twice and inside the previous orbit twice during one round.
Note) This site is in Japanese. image page. big red sun. 水星の近日点移動