Relativitätstheorie

Die Relativitätstheorie befasst sich mit der Struktur von Raum und Zeit, dem Verhalten von Masse in selbigen (SRT) und setzt das alles in Abhängigkeit zur Gravitation (ART).

Rückblick

Anfang des 20. Jahrhunderts fußte das naturwissenschaftliche Verständnis von Raum, Zeit und Gravitation noch auf der newtonschen Physik. Die newtonsche Physik malte uns ein Bild des Universums mit Raum und Zeit als absolute, d.h. unveränderliche und voneinander unabhängige Größen. Die Gravitation zeichnete er als Kraft zwischen zwei Massepunkten.

Überblick

In den Jahren von 1905 bis 1916 erfuhren diese Auffassungen dann eine radikale Revolution, ausgelöst durch eben jene Relativitätstheorie. Der theoretische Physiker Albert Einstein war maßgeblich an ihr beteiligt.

Die nächsten Abschnitte werden versuchen, die Grundlagen der Relativitätstheorie zusammenzufassen. Dabei muss der Prägnanz wegen auf Erläuterungen und Details verzichtet werden. Sie finden jedoch unter jedem Abschnitt Hinweise zu weiterführende Aufsätze. Falls Sie sich also näher für eines der aufregenden Phänomene der RT interessieren, klicken Sie sich einfach weiter.

1. Spezielle Relativitätstheorie

Häufig wird behauptet, Einstein habe Newton widerlegt. Das ist falsch, er verbesserte ihn lediglich durch eine allgemeinere Theorie. Mit seiner speziellen Relativitätstheorie entlarvte Albert Einstein nämlich Raum, Zeit und Bewegung als relative Größen. Die newtonsche Physik war damit entthront und ist in Einsteins Theorie nur noch als ein besonderer Grenzfall enthalten.

Doch nicht nur das, die spezielle Relativitätstheorie kann uns auch zeigen, dass Raum und Zeit gar nicht unabhängig voneinander existieren. Vielmehr verschmelzen die beiden in der SRT zu einer einheitlichen Raumzeit.

Auch die Masse M und die Energie E erwiesen sich in ihrer weltbekannten Gleichung (s.o.) als zwei Seiten derselben Medaille. Zusammengehalten werden diese schließlich noch durch die Lichtgeschwindigkeit C, die entgegen allen anderen relativen Bewegungen und Geschwindigkeiten immer konstant und unabhängig vom Bezugsystem ist.

2. Allgemeine Relativitätstheorie

Elf Jahre später entwarf Einstein seine Allgemeine Relativitätstheorie. Diese berücksichtigt auch die Fälle, in denen die Gravitation eine Rolle spielt. In zehn Feldgleichungen verwarf Einstein den newtonschen Gedanken, Gravitation sei eine Kraft, die sich ohne Zeitverlust ausbreite. Anstelle dessen fasst er die Gravitation als Eigenschaft der gekrümmten Raumzeit auf. Materie krümmt das Raumzeit-Kontinuum und so entsteht Schwerkraft.

Das Schwerefeld kann man sich wie eine unsichtbare, gespannte Gummihaut vorstellen. Liegt nun ein massereicher Körper, etwa eine Sonne, in ihm, wird sie gekrümmt. Dementsprechend drückt sich auch die Gummihaut ein, wenn man einen Ball auf sie legt. Infolge der derart modifizierten Geometrie der Raumzeit ändert sich sogar der augenscheinlich so geradlinige Verlauf der Lichtstrahlen, die von den Massekörpern ausgehen. Erfasst vom Schwerefeld sucht sich der Lichtstrahl nun einen neuen, kürzstmöglichen Weg. Aus diesem Grund können wir auch noch die Sterne sehen, die sich eigentlich knapp hinter dem Sonnenrand verbergen.

3. Ausblick

Man kann sich wieder und wieder mit der Relativitätstheorie befassen und wird trotzdem niemals zu dem Gefühl kommen, alle ihre Konsequenzen durchgedacht zu haben. So geht es zumindest mir, immer wieder aufs Neue stehe ich vor Situationen, bei denen ich nicht weiß, wie man sie sich gemäß der RT denken soll. Oder die einem immer noch extrem komisch und unreal vorkommen.

Dabei lassen sich die Vorgänge und Eigenschaften innerhalb der Relativitätstheorie mathematisch unglaublich präzise beschreiben und gehören zu den bestbestätigten in der Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften. Dies klassifiziert sie, zusammen mit der Quantentheorie, als eine der besten Theorien der Gegenwart.

Zusammen mit der Quantentheorie stellt die Relativitätstheorie eine der zwei tragenden Säulen der modernen Physik dar. Beide gingen ursprünglich aus der newtonschen Physik hervor, enthalten diese immer noch als Spezialfall und erfüllen somit das Korrespondenzprinzip. Die Bemühungen vieler Physiker gelten dieser Tage der Vereinigung dieser beiden Säulen, wobei meist versucht wird die Relativitätstheorie in die Quantentheorie zu integrieren, und nicht andersrum.

In den Quantenfeldtheorien konnte man bereits die spezielle Relativitätstheorie mit der Quantentheorie und im Rahmen des heutigen Standardmodells der Physik einen. Der noch außenstehenden Quantentheorie, die auch noch die allgemeine Relativitätstheorie bzw. die Gravitation mit ins Boot nimmt, will man dann den Namen Quantengravitationstheorie geben.

4. Verweise

  • Intelligenz: Albert Einstein war ein sehr intelligenter Mensch. Intelligenz aber ist kein reines Bücherwissen und nicht bloß das Resultat testorientiertem Spezialtrainings. Es ist vielmehr eine breite und tiefe Begabung zum Verständnis unbekannter Problemfelder.

  • Raum und Zeit: Die Relativitätstheorie hat uns dem Wesen von Raum und Zeit erheblich näher gebracht. Sie kann aber nicht das letzte Wort gewesen sein, wie sich beispielsweise an Schwarze Löchern zeigen lässt.

  • Sprache: Issac Newton meinte noch: “Die absolute, wahre und mathematische Zeit verfließt an sich und vermöge ihrer Natur gleichförmig, und ohne Beziehung auf irgendeinen äußeren Gegenstand.” Wir wissen es heute besser. Außerdem ist die Aussage „die absolute Zeit fließt gleichförmig“ tautologisch. Sie hat keinen Informationswert, da die absolute Zeit per definitonem immer gleichförmig fließt. Weil, wie könnte man den gleichmäßigen Fluss einer absoluten Zeit überprüfen, wen nicht mit der absoluten Zeit selbst und wie könnte uns ihr Fluss in diesem Fall anders erscheinen, als gleichmäßig? Ähnliches gelte für einen absoluten Raum, der beispielsweise nicht relativ ist. Was Raum und Zeit aber nach unserem heutigen Verständnis sei, geht vollkommen gegen das, was man intuitiv annehmen würde: Raum und Zeit sind keine Bühne, vor deren Hintergrund sich alles Materielle abspielt. Vielmehr sind Raum und Zeit intrinsische Eigenschaften der Materie, die ohne sie gar nicht existieren würde.

  • Unser Problem: Was für die unanschauliche Quantenwelt gilt, gilt in abgeschwächter Form also auch für die Relativitätstheorie: Sie entspricht nicht unsere Alltagsmeinung und Intuition. Was sie aber nicht falsch macht. Wir erleben im Alltag nun mal so etwas wie die newtonsche Welt, sprich keine schnellen Bewegungen, keine kleine Skalen. Deshalb ist man auch lange Zeit so gut mit Newton gefahren. In weniger alltäglichen Situationen aber, wie etwa am Rande supermassiver schwarzer Löcher oder im Inneren eines Atoms, versagt Newtons Physik. Spätestens an dieser Stelle braucht es dann die Quantentheorie, und die Relativitätstheorie.

Stand: 2015

Kommentare: 279
  • #279

    Hiroji kurihara (Freitag, 24 Mai 2024 09:03)

    Wavelength Measurement (Aw)

    Is wavelength of light traveling in outer space being measured as it is (on light before arriving) ? Isn't what is being measured light (extincted light) that has passed through a medium such as glass ? In internet (a bit), any site mentioned can not be found.

    Suppose an observer moving in various motions in outer space is measuring wavelength of starlights. In the formula, c = f λ, f varies. Accordingly, c varies. However, we seem to believe, it is λ that varies.

    We must distinguish the light before and after measurement device (before and after extinction).

  • #278

    Hiroji kurihara (Mittwoch, 22 Mai 2024 05:18)

    Hollow Tube and Speed of Light (again)

    In outer space, starlight coming from the left is passing through a stationary horizontal tube of length L. Frequency at the left and right ends of the tube is the same. This sameness is true even if the tube is moving in the left and right directions at different uniform speed. In other words, number of waves that exist inside the tube (wave number × L) is invariable. There is no varying in wavelength of light. In the formula, c = f λ, it is f and c that vary. It is the first picture.

    In the second picture, there are two tubes the same as above. The two are moving at a uniform speed. One is to the left and the other is to the right. As mentioned above, wavelength of light is the same. In the formula, c = f λ, f and c (of the two) are not the same.

  • #277

    Hiroji kurihara (Sonntag, 19 Mai 2024 12:28)

    From today's post, erase the word "Aether" (fourth word in text), please. Sorry.

  • #276

    Hiroji kurihara (Sonntag, 19 Mai 2024 11:45)

    Aether Drift (again)

    Speed of lightAether is the distance that light travels in one second, 299,792,458 m/s (defined value). Above value was obtained by measuring frequency and wavelength of laser light performed by Evenson et al in 1973 (error was ± 1.2 m/s).

    Imagine frequency and wavelength of light coming from two fixed stars located at symmetrical points (at opposite ponts) on the celestial sphere. Measuring must be done simultaneously. Perhaps many of the measured speeds of light are different. If so, it will be possible to identify two points (on the celestial sphere) where the difference is greatest.
    Note) Differences due to known mtion of Earth such as revolution and rotation must be excluded.
    Note) Wavelength must be measured before the light enters mediums such as glass. Is it possible ?

  • #275

    Hiroji kurihara (Samstag, 18 Mai 2024 10:08)

    One-way Speed of Light/Isotropy of Aether (again)

    English version of Wikipedia has an item titled "One-way speed of light". Word isotropic is found in 27 places.

    However, if the light from multiple celestial bodies on the celestial sphere is recorded and analyzed in outer space, one-way speed of light will become disclosed. Probably easily. By established means of measuring aberration.

    The position of bright lines and dark lines in spectrum of the celestial body's light will show the speed of celestial body's light and speed of light relative to Earth (and Aether drift). The isotropy and uniformity of aether will also be disclosed

  • #274

    Hiroji kurihara (Sonntag, 12 Mai 2024 07:36)

    Lunar Laser Ranging (again)

    Distance between Moon and Earth is measured with millimeter precision. Measurement is based on the formula “distance = speed of light x round trip time / 2”. What is noteworthy here is that the direction of laser beam with respect to celestial sphere does not affect the measurement results.

    Assume that the space where Moon and Earth exist is also filled with aether. Measurement results will differ depending on the direction of laser beam with respect to celestial sphere (according to the explanation of MM experiment).

    However, aether does not affect the propagation of electromagnetic waves at the distance between Moon and Earth. That is, aether does not affect the propagation of electromagnetic waves for a few seconds after emission. Ritz’s emission theory is revived, although in a limited extent. For now, let’s take this as an assumption. There is no need to be worried about the framework of time or space.

  • #273

    Hiroji kurihara of (Samstag, 04 Mai 2024 02:53)

    Law of Universal Gravitation (rewritten)

    Formula for the law of universal gravitation is F=GMm/r^2. Value r is the distance between centers of gravity of the two bodies (let’s call them spheres L and R). If r is 50, the squared is 2500. It is the first diagram.

    Now, this is the second diagram. On a horizontal straight line, spheres L, R1, and R2 are lined up. If distance between L and R1 is 49, and distance between L and R2 is 51, the squared are 2401 and 2601. If these two are added and divided by 2, the value 2501 is gotten, which is slightly larger than 2500. In other words, the formula of universal gravitation doesn’t care about the size of the two sources of gravity, but in reality, there will be some effect, even if it’s a little ? Is Newton’s spherical shell theorem not perfect ? Is this the main cause of apsidal precession ?
    Note) 2500 and 2501 are coefficients in numerator of the formula.
    Note) Masses of R1 and R2 each are 1/2 of the mass of R.
    Note) Assume that R1 and R2 are hemispheres of R (distance of centers of gravity is 2).

  • #272

    Hiroji kurihara (Samstag, 27 April 2024 07:13)

    Accelerated Motion and Non-Accelerated Motion (again)

    All accelerated motion is accompanied by inertial force (it is reaction. See Newton’s third law of motion).

    All non-accelerated motion is not accompanied by inertial force. It is the same for absolute rest (relative to aether frame).

    Gravity is unrelated to this problem.

  • #271

    Hiroji kurihara (Samstag, 20 April 2024 03:48)

    Equivalence Principle (again)

    Allow me to repeat the previous question,regarding two situations ◎ below. Two situations ◎ can be explainend qualitatively and quantitatively using formulas based on Newton’s laws of motion. The question is, how to explain equivalent principle ? Is there anyone who can ? .
    ◎ Forces of the same magnitude are acting on a mass point from the left and right directions. Types of forces are tension, gravity, and inertial force. Since there are no combinations of inertial forces and inertial forces, there are five combinations of forces (ignoring the difference between left and right).
    ◎ A body is sliding down inclined surface (no friction).

  • #270

    Hiroji kurihara (Freitag, 19 April 2024 06:04)

    Equivalence Principle (again)

    On the ground, a passenger car is moving with uniform acceleration to the right. In the car, a body hanging from the ceiling with a string is swinging to the left. The angle can be explained qualitatively and quantitatively using equations based on Newton’s laws of motion. What about equivalence principle ? Is there anyone who can ?

  • #269

    Hiroji kurihara (Dienstag, 16 April 2024 10:16)

    Accelerated Motion and Non-Accelerated Motion (again)

    Difference between the two motions above will be the difference of motion with respect to aether frame. A mass point moving in accelerated motion is accompanied by inertial force, that corresponds qualitatively and quantitatively. A mass point moving in non-accelerated motion (uniform linear motion) is not accompanied by inertial force.

    A saying are trying about inertial force and gravity. What can we say by comparing the two words ? Inertial force is inertial force, gravity is gravity and both are true forces ! That seems to be all that can be said. This is a short report.

  • #268

    Hiroji kurihara (Freitag, 12 April 2024 10:11)

    Local Inertial Frame (again)

    An elevator cabin is in free fall. Imagine mass points placed regularly in the elevator. Vector of inertial force acting on each mass point is the same. Local inertial frame is impossible.

    Two elevators are moving apart horizontally. One is in accelerated motion and the other is in non-accelerated motion. By an accelerometer, to tell which one is accelerating is possible. In the elevator with accelerated motion, there is no inertial frame, even locally. this

  • #267

    Hiroji kurihara of (Freitag, 12 April 2024 09:01)

    Accelerated Motion (again)

    A passenger car is accelerating to the right (uniform acceleration). A light source (wavelength is onstant) at the rear wall of the car emits light, and on the front wall, frequency measuring device is settled. During acceleration, in the car, there will be more waves than before. In other words, accelerated motion is not fictitious (inertial force will not be fictitious also).

    A ray of light is emitted from the ceiling of a passenger car directly below. When this car is accelerated, the light ray reaches the floor in a parabola. Difference between acceleration and non-acceleration is not fictitious.

  • #266

    Hiroji kurihara (Freitag, 12 April 2024 08:59)

    Accelerated Motion & Inertial Force (again)

    Accelerated motion is absolute motion relative to aether frame. The two are two sides of the same coin. Gravity is irrelevant at all, and does not play a role in this problem.

  • #265

    Hiroji kurihara (Montag, 01 April 2024 08:33)

    Measuring Aether (again)

    In outer space, frequency and wavelength of incoming lights from two stars (from opposite directions on the celestial sphere) are measured. To the measurer, speed of two incoming lights will be different. And sum of speed of two lights will be 2c (or close to 2c : constant). In post 262, it is forgotten to note. Sorry.

  • #264

    Hiroji kurihara (Freitag, 29 März 2024 02:46)

    Accelerated Motion & Inertial Force (again)

    Accelerated motion and inertial force correspond qualitatively (also, in the direction of celestial sphere and of aether) quantitatively. This will lead to zero inertial force in non-accelerated motion. Without exception. In addition, let us assume that non-accelerating motion includes absolute rest.

  • #263

    Hiroji kurihara (Montag, 25 März 2024 07:10)

    Centrifugal force (again)

    Rods of length 4r and 2r are rotating horizontally (in the shape of a cross). Assume that four edges
    of the rod each has mass point of mass m, and the mass of the rod is zero. Tension (centrifugal force) acting on the rod is a true force.

    The formula for centrifugal force is F = m v^2/r. And as Newton’s third law of motion shows, centrifugal force is an action and centripetal force is a reaction. The magnitude of the force is the same. The two are true forces.

    Tension is centrifugal force, an effect of Newton’s third law of motion, and centripetal force is a reaction. The two are true forces. Rotational motion can be boiled down to accelerated motion and non-accelerated motion (including absolute rest). Frame will be the celestial sphere and the aether.

  • #262

    Hiroji kurihara (Mittwoch, 06 März 2024 03:58)

    Measuring Aether (again)

    In outer space, frequency and wavelength of incoming lights from two stars (from opposite directions on the celestial sphere) are measured. To the measurer, speed of two incoming lights will be different. And it will mean the motion (in the direction of light path) of the measurer with respect to aether.
    Note) If the measurer moves in the direction of light path, frequency and speed of two incoming lights will vary. Because, wavelength of two incoming light does not vary.

  • #261

    Hiroji kurihara (Samstag, 02 März 2024 08:44)

    Propagation of Light in Two Ways (again)

    Annual aberration and daily aberration mean motion of Earth (with respect to aether). Aether is real existence. On the other hand, if the distance to the light source is not too far (no, even the distance to the Moon also !), propagation of light will follow emission theory. Both aether and emission theory will revive. As phoenixes some day. Relativity will fade away.

  • #260

    Hiroji kurihara (Donnerstag, 29 Februar 2024 05:41)

    Sorry, I made a silly mistake. I ask to erase my most recent post, please (and this).

  • #259

    Hiroji kurihara (Mittwoch, 28 Februar 2024 04:52)

    Propagation of Light in Two Ways (guess)

    In space, spaceship is floating (not accelerating). From this spacecraft, multiple probes begin a uniform linear motion towards assigned star on celestial sphere. A light source set on the probes that shines at a certain frequency is visible from the spacecraft.

    Is the assumption that propagation of light in two ways (written before) correct ? If correct, frequency of probe's light (reaches the spacecraft) that emitted from before and after a few light-seconds distance will be different (although in rare cases it may not be different). The two, emission theory and aether will revovebe as phoenixes.

  • #258

    Hiroji kurihara (Montag, 26 Februar 2024 06:02)

    Emission Theory (guess)

    For a few seconds after emission, propagation of light will follow emission theory, and then follows the aether reference frame (as written before). In other words, from the aether reference frame, speed of light will vary, and energy of a photon will also vary. It is said that energy of light is proportional to its frequency.
    Note) The above will be possible to explain accuracy of measuring the distance to Moon (by laser) and aberration without contradiction.

  • #257

    Hiroji kurihara (Montag, 26 Februar 2024 05:57)

    Emission Theory (guess)

    For a few seconds after emission, propagation of light will follow emission theory, and then follows the aether reference frame (as written before). In other words, from the aether reference frame, speed of light will vary, and energy of a photon will also vary. It is said that energy of light is proportional to its frequency.
    Note) The above will be possible to explain accuracy of measuring the distance to Moon (by laser) and aberration without contradiction.

  • #256

    Hiroji kurihara (Mittwoch, 21 Februar 2024 03:51)

    Aberration (again)

    Space is filled with aether. For light, aether acts as a medium (as a reference frame). In other words, light propagates at the same speed through aether. Regardless of the direction of propagation. Earth is moving at different speeds with respect to aether. Therefore, speed of light with respect to Earth is different

    Aberration is a phenomenon completed in upper atmosphere. It is the same as refraction. Result of Airy’s experiment (tube of telescope is filled with water) is only natural.

    Due to aberration, it is said that visible position (direction) of celestial bodies shift beyond the direction of motion of Earth. No, shift will be behind the direction of motion of Earth. This will be clear by illustration of light rays in upper atmosphere.

    Draw trajectory of position of a celestial body (on celestial sphere. returns to source every year). Ellipse of annual aberration will be warped by secular aberration. Daily aberration will be many small circles (365 pearls).

  • #255

    Hiroji kurihara (Montag, 19 Februar 2024 05:35)

    Is speed of light constant? (again)

    As posted preciously (one of which is on 20 Feb 2023), constancy of speed of light is impossible. Therefore, time dilation and Lorentz contraction are also impossible. Without a doubt.

  • #254

    Hiroji kurihara (Dienstag, 13 Februar 2024 00:45)

    Propagation of Light (again)

    Light propagates in two ways.
    1) A reflector placed on moon’s surface is irradiated with laser light, and by reflected light, distance to Moon is measured. Error is a few centimeters. Laser light emitted from light source will follow emission theory for one second at least. This guess can be scored 90 points out of 100 points.
    2) Various types of aberration. Light will follow reference frame of aether after passing through the region 1 above. This guess can be scored 120 points out of 100 points.
    Note) In air,light propagates following to reference frame of air. So, MM experiments done in air is nonsense.

  • #253

    Hiroji kurihara (Sonntag, 11 Februar 2024 04:37)

    Sound Waves, Light Waves and an Observer (summary)

    Sound waves propagate through air, and light waves propagate through aether. Medium is uniformly isotropic, and speed of waves with respect to medium is constant. So, when a point-like wave source is stationary in medium, waves drawn on a plane are concentric circles. Therefore, if an observer is moving with respect to medium, speed of sound waves and light waves for the observer is not constant.
    Note: Light waves using air as a medium propagate in the same way as sound waves.

  • #252

    Hiroji kurihara (Freitag, 09 Februar 2024 01:45)

    Culculating Equation of Doppler Effect

    Speed of sound waves is constant only with respect to air, which is medium of propagation. Speed of light waves will probably be constant only with respect to aether, which is medium of propagation.

    Therefore, calculating equation for frequency of light waves observed by an observer must be the same as culculating equation for frequency of sound waves observed by an observer.

  • #251

    Hiroji kurihara be (Dienstag, 06 Februar 2024 02:55)

    Doppler Effect and Variable Speed of Light

    For Doppler effect of sound waves, following will hold. Speed of sound waves in air, which is medium for sound waves propagation, is constant. In other words, speed of sound waves is constant only with respect to air.

    Doppler effect of light waves will be the same as that of sound waves. Medium of light waves is aether, which is uniformly isotropic. In other words, speed of light waves is constant only with respect to aether.

  • #250

    Hiroji kurihara (Donnerstag, 01 Februar 2024 08:30)

    Speed of sound is variable, and also, speed of light will be variable.

    Equation v = λ f holds between sound source and the observer. v is speed of sound to the observer, λ is wavelength, and f is frequency to the observer. The observer is in motion, which causes the frequency in varying. In above equation, what is varying is v (λ is not varying).

    Equation v = λ f will also hold between light source and the observer. It will be v that is varying.

  • #249

    Hiroji kurihara (Samstag, 27 Januar 2024 03:28)

    Kinetic Energy: Momentum: Force: Impulse (supplement)  

    Rotational momentum seems to be no matter. In the rotational motion of a body (imagine a disk), there is a state of speed zero (no rotation). And on both sides of it, there are plus and minus rotations. The two behave symmetrically. We can see the two qualitatively and quantitatively.

    But what about linear momentum ? Even in the linear motion of a body, there will be a state of speed zero (no moving). And on both sides of it, there will be plus and minus moations. The two behave symmetrically. However, we cannot see the two qualitatively and quantitatively.

  • #248

    Hiroji kurihara (Mittwoch, 24 Januar 2024 01:53)

    Kinetic Energy: Momentum: Force: Impulse (supplement)

    Momentum is physical quantity that we can vary in laboratory. And the rotational momentum can be zero (no matter who sees it). The same will go for linear momentum. The two momentums will be adjoining. But we don't understand that, and we don't try.

  • #247

    Hiroji kurihara (Montag, 22 Januar 2024 12:33)

    Kinetic Energy: Momentum: Force: Impulse (inference)

    A homogeneous disk with mass M, diameter 2a, and uniform thickness is stationary (not rotating) with respect to the celestial sphere. Angular momentum of this disk is zero. It is zero for any observer in any motion.

    There is a type of momentum called linear momentum, which is limited to motion in a straight line. A body of mass M is moving in a straight line. By analogy with rotational motion, there may be situations where linear momentum is zero even on a straight line (stationary on a straight line). All motion of a mass point can be understood as motions relative to aether (absolute rest).

  • #246

    Hiroji kurihara (Freitag, 05 Januar 2024 01:58)

    Motion of a Mass Point & Aether (again)

    Every mass point is either in motion or not. Motion is said to be relative, but this will be only appearance. For mass points in motion, there are motions in which vector of motion (magnitude and direction) vary and motions in which vectors are without varying. In motions varying, inertial force that vary (qualitatively or quantitatively) are recognized. In motions without varying, inertial force are not recognized.

    The above will be depending on existence of a uniform isotropic aether in space. Every motion relative to aether (absolute rest frame) will be measurable by optical way.

  • #245

    Hiroji kurihara (Dienstag, 12 Dezember 2023 08:02)

    Perihelion Shift of Mercury (is this A THORY ?)

    Perihelion shift of Mercury is 575 seconds in 100 years. In wikipedia, there is a site titled "Perigee Shift" (in Japanese). In it, it's stated that 532 of the 575 seconds are caused by perturbations due to gravity of other planets, and remaining 43 seconds are caused by the effects of general relativity. Simply adding up gravity of other planets ? Is this A THEORY ?

  • #244

    Hiroji kurihara (Sonntag, 10 Dezember 2023 08:29)

    Perihelion Shift of Mercury (summary)

    In a web-site in English titled "Perihelion Precession of the Planets", there is a table on observed rates from Mercury (5.75 seconds/year) to Neptune (0.36 seconds/year). In these, direction of precession is the direction of planet's revolution, and these magnitude are assumed to be constant. Let's assume this table is true. So, this phenomenon will be caused by two bodies: planet each and Sun.

    Adams and Le Verrier predicted the existence of Neptune and its position on the celestial sphere (from the precession of Uranus's position). But it was temporary and exceptional precession (perturbation).

  • #243

    Hiroji kurihara (Freitag, 24 November 2023 08:58)

    Sorry, I made mistake......

    http://lifeafterdeath.vip/eng.html

  • #242

    Hiroji kurihara (Freitag, 24 November 2023 01:51)

    Allow me to show URL of my web-site.This is last modified on 2019-2-10.

    http://www.geocities.co.jp/Technopolis/2561/eng.html

  • #241

    Hiroji kurihara (Freitag, 10 November 2023 03:35)

    Title of the page of the National astronomical observatory (of Japan) ephemeris computation office is shown below. Sorry for repeated addition.
    暦Wiki/近日点の移動-国立天文台暦計算室

  • #240

    Hiroji kurihara (Dienstag, 07 November 2023 01:06)

    A web-site with figures related to problem below appears using following keywords. Sorry, in Japanese.
    近日点の移動  国立天文台暦計算室

  • #239

    Hiroji kurihara (Montag, 06 November 2023 00:15)

    To yesterday’s post, following my posts are related.
    Aug 6, Sep 23, (2023).

  • #238

    Hiroji kurihara (Sonntag, 05 November 2023 06:58)

    Shift of Perihelion and Vernal Equinox of Earth (fake ?)

    A drawing shows Sun, Earth, and orbit of Earth. It also shows shift of perihelion of Earth (in the direction of revolution, annually) and shift of vernal equinox (in the opposite direction of revolution, annually). Shift of vernal equinox is said to be caused by precession of rotation axis (of Earth). Precession of rotation axis ? Really ? Shift of vernal equinox seems to be caused by extra centrifugal force due to size of the Earth. There is no other reason than that it seems to fit well.
    Note: Perihelion is said to take about 110,000 years, and vernal equinox takes about 26,000 years to complete one revolution.

  • #237

    Hiroji kurihara (Donnerstag, 26 Oktober 2023 03:13)

    Perihelion Shift of Mercury (and free fall)

    Towards Earth, two bodies with the same mass are in free fall. One is assumed to be a single point (with no size), and the other is a long pole (falling vertically). Also assumed that gravity of Earth is constant at g. As posted formerly, magnitude of gravity of Earth acting on two bodies will be former < latter slightly. As example, in my former post, it was 0.04 < 0.0400479. So latter continues to fall in advance. In a broad sense, orbital motion is considered to be free fall. It seems that the shift of perihelion of Mercury is caused by its size.
    P.S. See 0.0400497 as problem presentation. It is also problem presentation to Newton's spherical shell theorem.

  • #236

    Hiroji kurihara (Montag, 23 Oktober 2023 04:47)

    Perihelion Shift of Mercury (supplement)

    Imagine that two Mercurys are revolving in the orbit of Venus and Neptune. At two perihelions, Mercury moves in the same vector (direction and speed) as Venus and Neptune. Magnitude of Mercury's shift of perihelion will be smaller than that of the two. Because size of Mercury is smaller than that of the two.

  • #235

    Hiroji kurihara (Donnerstag, 19 Oktober 2023 07:14)

    Perihelion Shift of Mercury (continued)

    Imagine Mercury is revolving in the orbit of Neptune. Size of Mercury seen from Sun is almost a single point. So, magnitude of perihelion shift as two-body problem will be slight. And are perturbations outstanding ?

  • #234

    Hiroji kurihara of (Dienstag, 17 Oktober 2023 08:12)

    Perihelion Shift of Mercury (estimate)

    Two Mercurys are revolving. One is in the orbit of Mercury and the other is in the orbit of Venus. In the former, magnitude of shift of perihelion seems to be larger. This is probably because effect of Mercury's size is greater in the former.

  • #233

    Hiroji kurihara (Sonntag, 08 Oktober 2023 07:14)

    Perihelion Shift of Mercury (rewritten)

    Allow me to rewrite my previous post (Sep 29 and around).

    Shift of perihelion is constant. Then, a doubt arises. What is momentum of Mercury ? Is it increasing ? Is it decreasing ? Is there no increase or decrease ?

  • #232

    Hiroji kurihara (Freitag, 29 September 2023 07:33)

    Perihelion Shift of Mercury (imagine)

    Size of Mercury will increase Mercury’s gravity. The main result will be slight expansion of orbit, and followed by shift in perihelion. Therefore, centrifugal force also increases. Newton’s third law of motion will be inviolable.

  • #231

    Hiroji kurihara (Dienstag, 26 September 2023 07:11)

    Perihelion Shift of Mercury (supplement)

    Size of Mercury will cause the difference in its gravity and in its orbit. It will rotate long axis and shift perihelion (in the direction of revolution).

    But, will size of Mercury cause difference in its centrifugal force ? This difference probably correspond to the difference in motion (caused by difference in gravity).
    Note) How does gravity cause bodies to move ? In phenomenon such as perihelion shift of Mercury, we seem not to grasp it enough.

  • #230

    Hiroji kurihara (Samstag, 23 September 2023 06:09)

    Perihelion Shift of Mercury (rewritten, from my post, posted on Sep 16 or around)

    There is a figure of Mercury and its orbit. Mercury is drawn as a single point. But actually, Mercury has a size, and this size will slightly increase magnitude of gravity and centrifugal force of Mercury. Now, limit our consideration to half of orbit from perihelion to aphelion. Increase in gravity will shift aphelion in the direction of revolution. On the other hand, increase in centrifugal force will shift aphelion in the opposite direction of revolution. In increase, gravity will exceed.


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