Relativitätstheorie

Die Relativitätstheorie befasst sich mit der Struktur von Raum und Zeit, dem Verhalten von Masse in selbigen (SRT) und setzt das alles in Abhängigkeit zur Gravitation (ART).

Rückblick

Anfang des 20. Jahrhunderts fußte das naturwissenschaftliche Verständnis von Raum, Zeit und Gravitation noch auf der newtonschen Physik. Die newtonsche Physik malte uns ein Bild des Universums mit Raum und Zeit als absolute, d.h. unveränderliche und voneinander unabhängige Größen. Die Gravitation zeichnete er als Kraft zwischen zwei Massepunkten.

Überblick

In den Jahren von 1905 bis 1916 erfuhren diese Auffassungen dann eine radikale Revolution, ausgelöst durch eben jene Relativitätstheorie. Der theoretische Physiker Albert Einstein war maßgeblich an ihr beteiligt.

Die nächsten Abschnitte werden versuchen, die Grundlagen der Relativitätstheorie zusammenzufassen. Dabei muss der Prägnanz wegen auf Erläuterungen und Details verzichtet werden. Sie finden jedoch unter jedem Abschnitt Hinweise zu weiterführende Aufsätze. Falls Sie sich also näher für eines der aufregenden Phänomene der RT interessieren, klicken Sie sich einfach weiter.

1. Spezielle Relativitätstheorie

Häufig wird behauptet, Einstein habe Newton widerlegt. Das ist falsch, er verbesserte ihn lediglich durch eine allgemeinere Theorie. Mit seiner speziellen Relativitätstheorie entlarvte Albert Einstein nämlich Raum, Zeit und Bewegung als relative Größen. Die newtonsche Physik war damit entthront und ist in Einsteins Theorie nur noch als ein besonderer Grenzfall enthalten.

Doch nicht nur das, die spezielle Relativitätstheorie kann uns auch zeigen, dass Raum und Zeit gar nicht unabhängig voneinander existieren. Vielmehr verschmelzen die beiden in der SRT zu einer einheitlichen Raumzeit.

Auch die Masse M und die Energie E erwiesen sich in ihrer weltbekannten Gleichung (s.o.) als zwei Seiten derselben Medaille. Zusammengehalten werden diese schließlich noch durch die Lichtgeschwindigkeit C, die entgegen allen anderen relativen Bewegungen und Geschwindigkeiten immer konstant und unabhängig vom Bezugsystem ist.

2. Allgemeine Relativitätstheorie

Elf Jahre später entwarf Einstein seine Allgemeine Relativitätstheorie. Diese berücksichtigt auch die Fälle, in denen die Gravitation eine Rolle spielt. In zehn Feldgleichungen verwarf Einstein den newtonschen Gedanken, Gravitation sei eine Kraft, die sich ohne Zeitverlust ausbreite. Anstelle dessen fasst er die Gravitation als Eigenschaft der gekrümmten Raumzeit auf. Materie krümmt das Raumzeit-Kontinuum und so entsteht Schwerkraft.

Das Schwerefeld kann man sich wie eine unsichtbare, gespannte Gummihaut vorstellen. Liegt nun ein massereicher Körper, etwa eine Sonne, in ihm, wird sie gekrümmt. Dementsprechend drückt sich auch die Gummihaut ein, wenn man einen Ball auf sie legt. Infolge der derart modifizierten Geometrie der Raumzeit ändert sich sogar der augenscheinlich so geradlinige Verlauf der Lichtstrahlen, die von den Massekörpern ausgehen. Erfasst vom Schwerefeld sucht sich der Lichtstrahl nun einen neuen, kürzstmöglichen Weg. Aus diesem Grund können wir auch noch die Sterne sehen, die sich eigentlich knapp hinter dem Sonnenrand verbergen.

3. Ausblick

Man kann sich wieder und wieder mit der Relativitätstheorie befassen und wird trotzdem niemals zu dem Gefühl kommen, alle ihre Konsequenzen durchgedacht zu haben. So geht es zumindest mir, immer wieder aufs Neue stehe ich vor Situationen, bei denen ich nicht weiß, wie man sie sich gemäß der RT denken soll. Oder die einem immer noch extrem komisch und unreal vorkommen.

Dabei lassen sich die Vorgänge und Eigenschaften innerhalb der Relativitätstheorie mathematisch unglaublich präzise beschreiben und gehören zu den bestbestätigten in der Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften. Dies klassifiziert sie, zusammen mit der Quantentheorie, als eine der besten Theorien der Gegenwart.

Zusammen mit der Quantentheorie stellt die Relativitätstheorie eine der zwei tragenden Säulen der modernen Physik dar. Beide gingen ursprünglich aus der newtonschen Physik hervor, enthalten diese immer noch als Spezialfall und erfüllen somit das Korrespondenzprinzip. Die Bemühungen vieler Physiker gelten dieser Tage der Vereinigung dieser beiden Säulen, wobei meist versucht wird die Relativitätstheorie in die Quantentheorie zu integrieren, und nicht andersrum.

In den Quantenfeldtheorien konnte man bereits die spezielle Relativitätstheorie mit der Quantentheorie und im Rahmen des heutigen Standardmodells der Physik einen. Der noch außenstehenden Quantentheorie, die auch noch die allgemeine Relativitätstheorie bzw. die Gravitation mit ins Boot nimmt, will man dann den Namen Quantengravitationstheorie geben.

4. Verweise

  • Intelligenz: Albert Einstein war ein sehr intelligenter Mensch. Intelligenz aber ist kein reines Bücherwissen und nicht bloß das Resultat testorientiertem Spezialtrainings. Es ist vielmehr eine breite und tiefe Begabung zum Verständnis unbekannter Problemfelder.

  • Raum und Zeit: Die Relativitätstheorie hat uns dem Wesen von Raum und Zeit erheblich näher gebracht. Sie kann aber nicht das letzte Wort gewesen sein, wie sich beispielsweise an Schwarze Löchern zeigen lässt.

  • Sprache: Issac Newton meinte noch: “Die absolute, wahre und mathematische Zeit verfließt an sich und vermöge ihrer Natur gleichförmig, und ohne Beziehung auf irgendeinen äußeren Gegenstand.” Wir wissen es heute besser. Außerdem ist die Aussage „die absolute Zeit fließt gleichförmig“ tautologisch. Sie hat keinen Informationswert, da die absolute Zeit per definitonem immer gleichförmig fließt. Weil, wie könnte man den gleichmäßigen Fluss einer absoluten Zeit überprüfen, wen nicht mit der absoluten Zeit selbst und wie könnte uns ihr Fluss in diesem Fall anders erscheinen, als gleichmäßig? Ähnliches gelte für einen absoluten Raum, der beispielsweise nicht relativ ist. Was Raum und Zeit aber nach unserem heutigen Verständnis sei, geht vollkommen gegen das, was man intuitiv annehmen würde: Raum und Zeit sind keine Bühne, vor deren Hintergrund sich alles Materielle abspielt. Vielmehr sind Raum und Zeit intrinsische Eigenschaften der Materie, die ohne sie gar nicht existieren würde.

  • Unser Problem: Was für die unanschauliche Quantenwelt gilt, gilt in abgeschwächter Form also auch für die Relativitätstheorie: Sie entspricht nicht unsere Alltagsmeinung und Intuition. Was sie aber nicht falsch macht. Wir erleben im Alltag nun mal so etwas wie die newtonsche Welt, sprich keine schnellen Bewegungen, keine kleine Skalen. Deshalb ist man auch lange Zeit so gut mit Newton gefahren. In weniger alltäglichen Situationen aber, wie etwa am Rande supermassiver schwarzer Löcher oder im Inneren eines Atoms, versagt Newtons Physik. Spätestens an dieser Stelle braucht es dann die Quantentheorie, und die Relativitätstheorie.

Stand: 2015

Kommentare: 136
  • #136

    Hiroji kurihara (Sonntag, 25 September 2022 05:07)

    Secular aberration

    This is what comes into my mind. Three aberrations; daily, annual, and secular seem to form a closed necklace drawn in one stroke. Pearl are 365 (assuming star is visible even during day time).

    The star change its position at all times. Trajectory drawn on celestial sphere in one year will not be a ellipse but be an extended necklace with pearls.

  • #135

    Hiroji kurihara (Dienstag, 20 September 2022 01:50)

    About Light

    In outer space, frequency and wavelength of two star lights (coming from the opposite direction) are measured (at the same time). Sum of the speed of two lights will be constant. It is 2c or close to 2c.

    Above shows that in outer space, light is propagated relative to aether. And, speed of light relative to an observer is not constant.

  • #134

    Hiroji kurihara (Mittwoch, 14 September 2022 23:27)

    Moon and Sun (Hypothesis: Restated)

    Assume that sun’s light follows emission theory for a few seconds only. Matter of those on few seconds will be indistinguishable from earth. That is, sun is being in aether. So, light-time correction. And, light-time correction will be offset by secular aberration.

    Assume that moon’s light follows emission theory for a few seconds only. So, visible position of moon is exactly where it is. Just like sun. But the mechanism will be different.

  • #133

    Hiroji kurihara (Montag, 12 September 2022 02:24)

    Equivalence Principle ?

    A body is suspended by a string from roof of a passengercar. The same two passengercars started at the same jerk at the same time. Tension of string is increasing, and string broke at about the same time (for both person in the car and on on the ground). Inertial force and gravity will not be equivalent.

  • #132

    Hiroji kurihara (Samstag, 10 September 2022 00:21)

    Equivalence Principle

    Starting is to accept inertial forces as inertial forces. In a free-fall elevator, inertial force and gravity acting on the entire cabin is equal. As Newton’s third law of motion shows. Magnitudes of inertial force and gravity acting on each mass point (assume fluid) in elevator are as shown by Newton. That’s all.

    Eh, the equivalence principle? Will be worthless at all.

  • #131

    Hiroji kurihara (Freitag, 09 September 2022 00:58)

    Inertial Force is not Fictitious
     
    In addition to acceleration, there are jerk, snap, etc. And accordingly, inertial force must be varied. Inertial force cannot be fictitious.

    There must be absolute rest frame, so there are acceleration, jerk, snap, etc. In wikipedia (Japanese), in “Acceleration”, there is a table titled “Comparison of magnitude of acceleration”. Many examples of acceleration are shown in 18 division by magnitude.

  • #130

    Hiroji kurihara (Dienstag, 06 September 2022 04:36)

    Inertial Force is not Fictitious

    The same five bodies (mass m) are lined up sideways on a horizontal plane. Five bodies are tied with strings. Assume that horizontal plane is zero friction, and mass of strings is zero. On right most body, force of 5ma is acting and five bodies start a uniform linear accelerating motion toward the right. Tension acting on four strings are, from right to left, 4ma, 3ma, 2ma, and 1ma. For any observer.

  • #129

    Hiroji kurihara (Donnerstag, 25 August 2022 03:08)

    Accelerated Motion is not Fictitious

    A horizontally long container is filled with fluid. This container is being accelerated to the right. In the container, pressure of the fluid will be high on the left and low on the right (effect of gravity is separated question). Accelerated motion is not fictitious.

    But is this worth writing down ?

  • #128

    Hiroji kurihara (Mittwoch, 17 August 2022 05:18)

    Equivalence Principle

    On a mass point, two forces of equal magnitude are acting from the left and right. Two forces are tension, gravity, and inertial force. Wnen, left and right are not distinguished, there are five possible combinations (there is no combination of inertia force and inertia force). Is the equivalence principle still insisted upon ?

  • #127

    Hiroji kurihara (Donnerstag, 21 Juli 2022 00:17)

    Perihelion Shift of Mercury (an essay)

    Shift is smooth, like a hand of clock. Mainly, it will be two-body problem.

  • #126

    Hiroji kurihara (Samstag, 09 Juli 2022 11:01)

    Perihelion Shift of Mercury (an essay)

    Centrifugal force is inertial force and cannot be the first cause of perihelion shift. The 99-101 effect mentioned above (tentative naming: contrary to Newton's spherical shell theorem) will be caused by size of Mercury, size of Sun, and distance between Mercury and Sun. On Mercury, these have effect on gravity and it will be the first cause. And then, direction of elliptical orbit may be shifted. At perihelion, this effect will be greatest.

    Magnitude of perihelion shift of planets with satellite is far superior. This is probably because gravity of Sun acting on satellite in half orbit close to Sun is far superior.

  • #125

    Hiroji kurihara (Mittwoch, 06 Juli 2022 04:06)

    Perihelion shift of Mercury (an essay)

    Another inference. Half mentioned already at end of May. Mentioned was problem posing about a single gravitational source and gravitational sources separated into two. Let's call this effect as the 99-101 effect. The 99-101 effect is equal to the two of binary stars. The 99-101 effect is a candidate for explanation of perihelion shift of Mercury. However, it is incompatible with attempt to explain by Sun's spherical surface. I don't know which one is hopeful.

    If gravity source is close, size of gravitational source will increase gravity slightly. Then, Newton's sphericl shell theorem must be reviewed.

  • #124

    Hiroji kurihara (Mittwoch, 29 Juni 2022)

    Perihelion Shift of Mercury (an essay)

    This is an idea. In this problem, planets seem to be treated as a point. Now, planet is divided into two hemispheres. One is closer to Sun and the other is far from Sun (back to back). If the planet is far from Sun, centrifugal force and gravity each acting on two hemispheres will be the same(1/2). But, how about Mercury? We must imagine a spherical surface that centers on Sun, and this spherical surface coincides with center of Mercury ? And then, in whole Mercury, centrifugal force will be larger and gravity will be smaller. It is compared to Mercury as a point.

    Sorry, please ignore my two posts immediately preceding this one.

  • #123

    Hiroji kurihara (Mittwoch, 29 Juni 2022 04:51)

    Perihelion Shift of Mercury (an essay)

    This is an idea. In this problem, planets seem to be treated as a point. Now, planet is divided into two hemispheres. One is closer to Sun and the other is far from Sun (back to back). If the planet is far from Sun, centrifugal force and gravity each acting on two hemispheres will be the same(1/2). But, how about Mercury? We must imagine a spherical surface that centers on Sun, and this spherical surface coincides with center of Mercury ? And then, in whole Mercury, centrifugal force will be larger and gravity will be smaller. It is compared to Mercury as a point.

    Sorry, please ignore my two posts immediately preceding this one.

  • #122

    Hiroji kurihara (Samstag, 25 Juni 2022 00:56)

    Perihelion Shift of Mercury (essay)

    Mercury is revolving in orbit. Size of Mercury increases centrifugal force acting on revolving Mercury. This will be reason for perihelion shift of Mercury. The angle is about 5.75 arc-sec in a year.

    Size of Mercury will also increase gravity of Sun (which acts on Mercury). But it will not affect direction of long axis of elliptical orbit (after a round: that is, it will be unrelated to perihelion problem).

  • #121

    Hiroji kurihara (Donnerstag, 23 Juni 2022 04:15)

    Perihelion Shift of Mercury (an essay)

    This is a guess. Because of size of Mercury (in its elliptical orbit), centrifugal force will be increased. And, as Sun is near, effect of size will be larger (other planets are more like point).

  • #120

    Hiroji kurihara (Dienstag, 21 Juni 2022 07:04)

    Perihelion Shift of Mercury (an essay)

    This is a thought experiment on close binary stars (imagine on a plane no friction). Imagine the same homogeneous true sphere with mass m. Main star is three spheres and companion star is two spheres (these are attached as a single unit). These are on a straight line. Gravity exerted and affected by and to each will depend on size of true spheres (of here and there). Forget the spherical shell theorem. Two-body problem is also complicated.

  • #119

    Hiroji kurihara (Mittwoch, 15 Juni 2022 05:51)

    Perihelion Shift of Mercury (an essay)

    Increase in gravity due to size of Sun will depend on distance r between Sun and Mercury. This increase in gravity will be larger at perihelion and smaller at aphelion. Is this the reason for perihelion shift of Mercury ? Sorry for my repetitive posts.

  • #118

    Hiroji kurihara (Samstag, 11 Juni 2022 04:35)

    Perihelion Shift of Mercury (correction)

    Sorry, I ask to delete my post (09 juni) and replace it with following.

    It is said that magnitude of Sun's gravity acting on Mercury depends on Sun's mass m and distance r between the two. However, in reality, Sun's size will have effect. Noticeably on Mercury, which is close to Sun. Gravity will be greater slightly. Let's focus on orbit just after Mercury passes perihelion. Orbit will be slightly inward (r will be shorter also). This means that size of Sun shifts position of perihelion in the next around.

    P.S. Orbit to be compared is orbit when Sun is a point.

  • #117

    Hiroji kurihara (Donnerstag, 09 Juni 2022 05:21)

    Perihelion Shift of Mercury (Gleanings)

    It is said that magnitude of Sun's gravity acting on orbiting Mercury depends only Sun's mass m and distance r between the two. But in reality, in addition, there will be an effect of Sun's size. Gravity will be slightly greater. Therefore, Mercury's orbit that has left aphelion will be slightly inward (and r will also be shorter), and then, perihelion will be shifted.

  • #116

    Hiroji kurihara (Montag, 06 Juni 2022 02:03)

    Perihelion Shift of Mercury (repost)

    In a drawing, a fixed star F homogeneous true sphere and a planet P orbiting nearby are drawn. F acts gravity on P. Is magnitude of gravity on P dpending solely on mass m of F and distance r between FP ? No, the size of F may also have a slight effect. This will be main reason for the perihelion shift (secondary reasons are omitted). Newton's spherical shell theorem may not be perfect.

    Square of 99 is 9801. Square of 101 is 10201. See above my post.

  • #115

    Hiroji kurihara (Mittwoch, 01 Juni 2022 00:33)

    Perihelion Shift of Mercury (repost)

    Size of Sun relative to Mercury will be main cause of this problem (however, will be incompatible with Newton's spherical shell theorem).

    There are two drawings in which Mercury and gravity source (considered as a point) are drawn. In one drawing, gravity source is Sun and its mass is m. Distance from Mercury is 100. In the other drawing, there are two alternative gravity sources to the sun, Mass is m / 2 each. Distance from Mercury is 99 and 101(aligned on a straight line extending from Mercury). Magnitude of the gravity acting on Mercury is the latter > the former. It can be ignored on Neptune.

  • #114

    Hiroji kurihara (Sonntag, 29 Mai 2022 20:52)

    Apology, Adjacent my post "Speed of light" (on prism) was wrong. Sorry.

    To admin, i thank you always for accepting of my posts (I appreciate if you erace this and that two posts).

  • #113

    Hiroji kurihara (Samstag, 28 Mai 2022 07:07)

    Speed of light

    In Wikipedia’s “Dispersion (optics)”, there is a video of dispersion. By a prism, white light is spectrally dispersed. The speed of light is different between red and violet light after dispersion (spectroscopy). It is obvious at a glance.

  • #112

    Hiroji kurihara (Samstag, 28 Mai 2022 03:36)

    Speed of light

    In Wikipedia’s “Dispersion (optics)”, there is a video of dispersion. By a prism, white light is spectrally dispersed. The speed of light is different between red and violet light after dispersion (spectroscopy). It is obvious at a glance.

  • #111

    Hiroji kurihara (Freitag, 27 Mai 2022 02:26)

    Galaxy Rotatin Curve

    Is it because gravitational sources (that revolve galaxy) also extend over the disk of galaxy ? Is it because the state of inverse square law of gravity is different from that of solar system ?

  • #110

    Hiroji kurihara (Sonntag, 22 Mai 2022 06:41)

    Galaxy Rotation Curve

    Allow me to post an idea about the above. It is contraction of the size of galaxies. But in Wikipedia (in English), there seems to be no mention.

  • #109

    Hiroji kurihara (Freitag, 13 Mai 2022 10:48)

    Newton’s Third Law of Motion

    Does gravity always act as action? Is inertial force always reaction? It is a problem statement. As an example, there is an elevator cabin in free fall (mass is m).

  • #108

    Hiroji kurihara (Donnerstag, 12 Mai 2022 00:18)

    Newton's Third Law of Motion

    As an action and reaction, there are two examples about gravity. One is normal force. The other is Inertial force in free fall. The two should be accepted qualitatively and quantitatively.

  • #107

    Hiroji kurihara (Dienstag, 10 Mai 2022 04:11)

    Reviewing the Heliocentric Theory

    Motion of earth is various, such as rotation, revolution, uniform linear motion of solar system, and others. And there is aberration to each. These are reflection of motions relative to uniform isotropic aether. Qualitative and quantitative.

  • #106

    Hiroji kurihara (Donnerstag, 05 Mai 2022 00:45)

    Free fall (rewrited)

    A body is falling in free fall. On a horizontal plane, an observer is moving in a uniform linear motion. To the observer, the falling body draws a parabola. Every point of the body is accelerating.

    An elevator is falling in free fall. Assume, that there are two sources of gravity and there is a considerable distance between the two (even when viewed from elevator). How does equivalence principle explain ?

  • #105

    Hiroji kurihara (Montag, 25 April 2022 03:25)

    Perihelion shift of Mercury

    In a close binary, gravity of main star is acting on companion star. Magnitude of gravity is inversely proportional to square of distance. Therefore, if size of companion star is large, gravity that acting is somewhat larger (even if mass is the same).

    Note: Here is a horizontal line. From the right, gravity of main star is acting. On the line, we see three masses. Mass of right and left is m/2 and middle is m (interval is the same). Magnitude of gravity acting will be m<m/2+m/2

  • #104

    Hiroji kurihara (Samstag, 23 April 2022 02:31)

    Perihelion shift of Mercury

    Here is a close binary. A companion star approaches the main star and is passing the periastron on orbit. Actual orbit of companion star is different from orbit of mass point of it. Difference will be due mainly to size of companion star (mass distribution).

  • #103

    Hiroji kurihara (Donnerstag, 21 April 2022 05:52)

    Perihelion shift of Mercury

    5.75, 2.04, 11.45. These are observed value of perihelion shift of Mercury, Venus, and Earth (in a table of a website. Value are in arcsec/year. Table covers to Neptune). The decrease in Venus will be due to distance from the Sun, and the increase in Earth will be due to the Moon.

  • #102

    Hiroji kurihara (Dienstag, 19 April 2022 01:38)

    Perihelion shift of Mercury (an essay)

    Scaled models of Mercury and Vulcan (of my post, April 7) are falling in free fall. Magnitude of acceleration is probably Mercury > Vulcan > mass point. At the beginning of falling, centers of gravity of three models are at the same horizontal level.

    A web-site says, periastron shift are many in close binaries. This will be a two body problem.

  • #101

    Hiroji kurihara (Montag, 11 April 2022 01:26)

    Perihelion shift of Mercury

    Recurring orbits seem to show that this is a two body problem.

  • #100

    Hiroji kurihara (Sonntag, 10 April 2022 02:58)

    Perihelion shift of Mercury

    Mercury is perihelion shift and binary star is periastron shift. Two shifts are smooth and in one direction. Two each must be considered to be a two body problem.

    See again that table (in 近点移動). Values are observed values. And these each will be two body problem.

  • #99

    Hiroji kurihara (Donnerstag, 07 April 2022 10:05)

    Perihelion shift of Mercury

    In Wikipedia (in Japanese version : "Apsidal precession" 近点移動), there is
    a table named "Perihelion shirt of planets of solar system". These
    varies greatly depending on the distance from the sun and the
    presence or absence of satellites. Newcomb's table and explanation
    of relativity would be NG.

    A planet called Vulcan is revolving the orbit of Mercury. Assume
    that mass is the same and diameter is half to Mercury. The
    gravitational force of the Sun and the centrifugal force due to the
    orbital motion each would be Mercury > Vulcan > mass point.

    Newcomb's table of perturbation values of the planets acting on Mercury should be nonsense.

  • #98

    Hiroji kurihara (Dienstag, 29 März 2022 07:17)

    Stationary aether

    In outer space, an observer (in an inertial frame) is measuring light of stars. The number of stars being measured is reasonable and there is no clumping of stars on celestial sphere. What is measured is frequency and wavelength of each star’s light, i.e., speed of light. The results will reveal the existence of stationary aether.
    Note: Existence of stationary aether is not in doubt due to aberration.

  • #97

    Hiroji kurihara (Sonntag, 20 März 2022 01:12)

    Accelerated motion & light

    On the moon’s surface, a passenger car is accelerating to the right. A starlight (horizontal) is passing through a hole A in the front wall, and reaches B in the rear wall of the passenger car. Frequencies of A and B will be the same. Therefore, number of waves existing between A and B will be constant (even at different accelerations). Above is not only for uniform acceleration but also for non-uniform acceleration.

    On the moon’s surface, a passenger car is accelerating to the right. A light emitted from light source A’ in the front wall reaches B in the rear wall. What is frequency of A’B ? How many waves exist between A’B ?

  • #96

    Hiroji kurihara (Sonntag, 13 März 2022 01:49)

    Bending of light (by gravity)

    Light will not be bent by gravity. Because…
    1) At the center of Milky Way galaxy (where we live), it’s said that a black hole exists. Around it, several stars are revolving. These orbits seem to be natural.
    2) How about a star, before it is occulted by the moon or Jupiter ?

  • #95

    Hiroji kurihara (Freitag, 11 März 2022 03:08)

    Perihelion shift of Mercury (an essay)

    Perihelion shift of Mercury is about 574 arcsec per century, and main cause is said to be perturbations due to the gravity of other planets (Venus is about 280 arcsec, Jupiter is about 150 arcsec).

    There is a question. At the left end and the right end of the orbit of Mercury (a view from above), force that accelerates and decelerates Mercury by perturbation by other planets will be equal (in probability). Especially in the span of the century. Main cause will not be gravity of other planets.
    P.S. Perturbations of other planets will be caused only by the position of these on the orbits (and speed of gravity will be infinite).

  • #94

    Hiroji kurihara (Freitag, 18 Februar 2022)

    Aberration on the moon

    Many of widely accepted explanations for aberration will be right if these are on the moon. Illustration of raindrops and an umbrella will be OK. But as already mentioned, aberration on the earth is completed in the upper atmosphere. The explanation for aberration of earth must be rewritten.

    Aberration (both on the moon and on the earth) is incompatible with constançy of the speed of light, and existence of aether is a prerequisite.

  • #93

    Hiroji kurihara (Sonntag, 13 Februar 2022 03:15)

    Selected notices in English

    28 selected notices (anti relativity) in English are added in a site below. Yes, these are selected.

    http://www.asyura.com/0306/idletalk2/msg/1242.html

  • #92

    Hiroji kurihara (Mittwoch, 19 Januar 2022 08:15)

    34 notices on anti-relativity

    Shown below (mine, selected) will be simple, certain and acceptable (sorry, in Japanese : 1-36 excluding 11&36).

    http://www.asyura.com/0306/idletalk2/msg/1242.html

  • #91

    Hiroji kurihara (Samstag, 11 Dezember 2021 09:30)

    Inertial force is not fictitious

    On a plane (without friction), a body is pulled to the left by two strings and to the right by one string. The tension of each string is the same F. That is, the body is accelerating to the left. Inertial force is not fictitious (Newton's third law of motion holds at the left end of the body).

  • #90

    Hiroji kurihara (Sonntag, 05 Dezember 2021 04:10)

    Time dilation

    A point light source is shining (frequency is constant). Two spacecrafts are moving away from the light source in opposite directions at the same speed (three are on a straight line). Two spacecrafts are receiving light of the same frequency. There is no time dilation.

  • #89

    Hiroji kurihara (Sonntag, 05 Dezember 2021 04:01)

    Gravitational time dilation

    Laser beam (frequency is constant) emitted from the ground is reflected by the mirror at the top of the high tower, and returned to the ground. Frequency at these three points is the same. There is no time dilation.

  • #88

    Hiroji kurihara (Sonntag, 05 Dezember 2021 03:57)

    Acceleration and non-acceleration

    A passenger car is moving in a uniform accelerated motion to the right. In the car, a ray of light emitted downward from the roof will be bent to the left (as a parabola). Defference of acceleration and non-acceleration is not relative (but absolute).

  • #87

    Hiroji kurihara (Sonntag, 05 Dezember 2021 03:55)

    Acceleration and non-acceleration

    A passenger car is accelerating to the right. In the car, lights (frequency is constant) are emitted from light source settled on rear and front walls, and at the center of the car, interference fringes are observed. Varying of interference fringes will reflect varying of acceleration. Sagnac effect like will also occur in a straight line.


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