Die Relativitätstheorie befasst sich mit der Struktur von Raum und Zeit, dem Verhalten von Masse in selbigen (SRT) und setzt das alles in Abhängigkeit zur Gravitation (ART).
Anfang des 20. Jahrhunderts fußte das naturwissenschaftliche Verständnis von Raum, Zeit und Gravitation noch auf der newtonschen Physik. Die newtonsche Physik malte uns ein Bild des Universums mit Raum und Zeit als absolute, d.h. unveränderliche und voneinander unabhängige Größen. Die Gravitation zeichnete er als Kraft zwischen zwei Massepunkten.
In den Jahren von 1905 bis 1916 erfuhren diese Auffassungen dann eine radikale Revolution, ausgelöst durch eben jene Relativitätstheorie. Der theoretische Physiker Albert Einstein war maßgeblich an ihr beteiligt.
Die nächsten Abschnitte werden versuchen, die Grundlagen der Relativitätstheorie zusammenzufassen. Dabei muss der Prägnanz wegen auf Erläuterungen und Details verzichtet werden. Sie finden jedoch unter jedem Abschnitt Hinweise zu weiterführende Aufsätze. Falls Sie sich also näher für eines der aufregenden Phänomene der RT interessieren, klicken Sie sich einfach weiter.
Häufig wird behauptet, Einstein habe Newton widerlegt. Das ist falsch, er verbesserte ihn lediglich durch eine allgemeinere Theorie. Mit seiner speziellen Relativitätstheorie entlarvte Albert Einstein nämlich Raum, Zeit und Bewegung als relative Größen. Die newtonsche Physik war damit entthront und ist in Einsteins Theorie nur noch als ein besonderer Grenzfall enthalten.
Doch nicht nur das, die spezielle Relativitätstheorie kann uns auch zeigen, dass Raum und Zeit gar nicht unabhängig voneinander existieren. Vielmehr verschmelzen die beiden in der SRT zu einer einheitlichen Raumzeit .
Auch die Masse M und die Energie E erwiesen sich in ihrer weltbekannten Gleichung (s.o.) als zwei Seiten derselben Medaille. Zusammengehalten werden diese schließlich noch durch die Lichtgeschwindigkeit C, die entgegen allen anderen relativen Bewegungen und Geschwindigkeiten immer konstant und unabhängig vom Bezugsystem ist .
Elf Jahre später entwarf Einstein seine Allgemeine Relativitätstheorie. Diese berücksichtigt auch die Fälle, in denen die Gravitation eine Rolle spielt. In zehn Feldgleichungen verwarf Einstein den newtonschen Gedanken, Gravitation sei eine Kraft, die sich ohne Zeitverlust ausbreite. Anstelle dessen fasst er die Gravitation als Eigenschaft der gekrümmten Raumzeit auf. Materie krümmt das Raumzeit-Kontinuum und so entsteht Schwerkraft.
Das Schwerefeld kann man sich wie eine unsichtbare, gespannte Gummihaut vorstellen. Liegt nun ein massereicher Körper, etwa eine Sonne, in ihm, wird sie gekrümmt. Dementsprechend drückt sich auch die Gummihaut ein, wenn man einen Ball auf sie legt. Infolge der derart modifizierten Geometrie der Raumzeit ändert sich sogar der augenscheinlich so geradlinige Verlauf der Lichtstrahlen, die von den Massekörpern ausgehen. Erfasst vom Schwerefeld sucht sich der Lichtstrahl nun einen neuen, kürzstmöglichen Weg. Aus diesem Grund können wir auch noch die Sterne sehen, die sich eigentlich knapp hinter dem Sonnenrand verbergen.
Man kann sich wieder und wieder mit der Relativitätstheorie befassen und wird trotzdem niemals zu dem Gefühl kommen, alle ihre Konsequenzen durchgedacht zu haben. So geht es zumindest mir, immer wieder aufs Neue stehe ich vor Situationen, bei denen ich nicht weiß, wie man sie sich gemäß der RT denken soll. Oder die einem immer noch extrem komisch und unreal vorkommen.
Dabei lassen sich die Vorgänge und Eigenschaften innerhalb der Relativitätstheorie mathematisch unglaublich präzise beschreiben und gehören zu den bestbestätigten in der Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften. Dies klassifiziert sie, zusammen mit der Quantentheorie , als eine der besten Theorien der Gegenwart.
Zusammen mit der Quantentheorie stellt die Relativitätstheorie eine der zwei tragenden Säulen der modernen Physik dar. Beide gingen ursprünglich aus der newtonschen Physik hervor, enthalten diese immer noch als Spezialfall und erfüllen somit das Korrespondenzprinzip. Die Bemühungen vieler Physiker gelten dieser Tage der Vereinigung dieser beiden Säulen, wobei meist versucht wird die Relativitätstheorie in die Quantentheorie zu integrieren, und nicht andersrum.
In den Quantenfeldtheorien konnte man bereits die spezielle Relativitätstheorie mit der Quantentheorie und im Rahmen des heutigen Standardmodells der Physik einen. Der noch außenstehenden Quantentheorie, die auch noch die allgemeine Relativitätstheorie bzw. die Gravitation mit ins Boot nimmt, will man dann den Namen Quantengravitationstheorie geben.
Stand: 2015
Hiroji kurihara (Freitag, 19 Mai 2023 05:16)
Local Inertial Frame (again)
Every mass point is either in an inertial (unaccelerated) frame or accelerated frame. If a rigid homogeneous cuboid is in free-falling, every mass point is in accelerated frame. In this cuboid, there can be no inertial frame, even locally.
P.S. This difference is not fictitious but absolute.
Hiroji kurihara (Mittwoch, 17 Mai 2023 03:37)
Correction (on today’s post : on the third note)
A starlight > A light source
Hiroji kurihara (Mittwoch, 17 Mai 2023 01:03)
Two Formulas for Speed of Light (in vacuum)
First formula, v=fλ: It is speed of light relative to aether, and v is constant. Area is where light follows aether frame. That is, more than a few light seconds away from light source.
Second formula, c=fλ; It is speed of light relative to light source, and c is constant. Area is where light follows emission theory. That is, within a few light seconds from light source.
Note) First formula is the same as formula for the speed of sound in air (depending on f and λ).
Note) In outer space, a starlight is passing through a tube. In the center of the tube, a plate of glass is placed. In front of the glass, the starlight follows aether frame, and in back of it, starlight follows emission theory.
Note) A starlight is moving in aether. It is possible that v and c move at the same speed. Usually, v will be below c.
Note) For a moving observer, speed of light must be reconsidered (starting with the Doppler effect).
Hiroji kurihara (Freitag, 12 Mai 2023 01:27)
Speed of Light Varies
On the Moon's surface, plane waves of Sunlight are arriving horizontally from above to two passenger cars. There is a small pinhole at the center of ceiling of two passenger cars, and on the floor, there is a spot of light that passed through pinhole.
Two passenger cars are moving on the Moon's surface at different speeds (in x direction). For an observer inside the passenger car, position of light spot on the floor will be different. This difference in position will be the same for an observer stands on the Moon's surface.
Hiroji kurihara (Sonntag, 07 Mai 2023 01:58)
Gravity (gravitational field) and Time
There is optical path of triangle ABC with top A of tall tower and mirror BC placed on the ground (as vertices). Laser light emitted from light source set at A (frequency is constant) is reflected by BC and returns to A. Frequencies of laser light at ABC will be the same. Time dilation due to gravity will be impossible.
Hiroji kurihara (Freitag, 05 Mai 2023 02:09)
Pinhole Camera
In outer space, a starlight is coming from the right. This ray enters the pinhole of a pinhole camera and is reflected upward by a mirror set at 45 degrees upwards in the camera.
When the camera moves to the right or left (at a uniform speed), the position where reflected light hits the upper inner wall of the camera will move. Incident light is propagated in aether, and reflected light follows emission theory.
Note: Speed of lincident light and rleflected light relative to the mirror are generally different. So, angle of the two are also. λ are also).
Hiroji kurihara (Donnerstag, 04 Mai 2023 02:21)
Apology and Cancellation
My recent posts 29 April seem to be invalid. Sorry.
Hiroji kurihara (Samstag, 29 April 2023 07:41)
Aether
In outer space, three pinhole cameras are pointed in X, Y and Z directions (these are in uniform linear motion, the same as Sun). Cameras are pretty large. In the camera, on the inner wall, on the opposite side of the pinhole, disks rotate once and receiving position of star lights are recorded.
Recorded position of star lights on three disks will not be true circle. These may indicate motion of the pinhole cameras relative to aether.
Hiroji kurihara (Donnerstag, 27 April 2023 05:21)
Mars & Aether
Annual aberration of Mars is based on its revolution period of 1.881 years and average orbital speed of 28.07 km/sec. That is, aberration is mainly caused by motion of observer relative to the aether. Qualitatively and quantitatively. Needless to explain.
Other aberrations of Mars are also.
Hiroji kurihara (Donnerstag, 13 April 2023 08:53)
Equivalence Principle
Two bodies of the same mass m tied by a fairly long string are in free fall to Jupiter. Two bodeies are back and forth, and increasing tension of the string is informed to Earth. Inertial force and gravity are different things.
Comet Shoemaker-Levy, which fell to Jupiter in 1994. It was broken into at least 21 pieces in falling.
Hiroji kurihara (Donnerstag, 13 April 2023 04:37)
Equivalence principle (as an impression)
In laboratory experiment, inertial force is something that we can control. In a laboratory called thought experiment, we can control falling of an elevator cabin also. On the other hand, it seems that gravity is beyond our reach. In other words, inertial force and gravity will be different things.
Even outside laboratory (whether within our reach or not), inertial force and gravity may be different thing.
Hiroji kurihara (Donnerstag, 13 April 2023 02:38)
Perihelion Shift of Mercury (long axis)
Long axis of Mercury’s orbit is slowly rotating. That is, Mercury will follow an orbit outside its previous orbit after passing either perihelion or aphelion (for some extent). This is not so for perihelion in many figures.
Hiroji kurihara (Mittwoch, 12 April 2023 04:37)
Perihelion Shift of Mercury (again)
In many figures, Mercury's orbit is outside the previous orbit for some extent after aphelion, and inside for some extent after perihelion. Unacceptable.
Hiroji kurihara (Dienstag, 11 April 2023 02:53)
Perihelion Shift of Mercury (unfamiliar figure)
I found a figure unfamiliar on web. About two Mercury's orbits are shown. New orbit is outside the previous orbit twice and inside the previous orbit twice during one round.
Note) This site is in Japanese. image page. big red sun. 水星の近日点移動
Hiroji kurihara (Montag, 10 April 2023 06:50)
Perihelion Shift of Mercury (Summary?)
Two laps of elliptical orbit of Mercury is drawn. Ellipse B after perihelion must be drawn outside previous ellipse A. However, in many figures such as web, it is inside. Ellipse is rotating around Sun. Many figures must be wrong.
In other words, state of ellipse nearby perihelion must be the same as that of nearby aphelion (the same qualitatively). Nearby these two points, Mercury will be affected by excessive acceleration due to its size. Acceleration will be caused by centrifugal force or gravity or by both.
Hiroji kurihara (Donnerstag, 06 April 2023 07:30)
Perihelion Shift of Mercury (reconfirmation)
As posted before, the size of Mercury as a sphere would be the core to this problem. Allow me to reconfirm.
Divide Mercury into two the same spheres (two are contacted). Two centers of sphere lie on the line of action of Sun’s gravity. Distance between Sun and centers of two spheres are 49 and 51. Magnitude of Sun’s gravity is F=GM/r^2. Therefore, the denominators of magnitude of Sun’s gravity acting on the two spheres are 2401 and 2601.
Hiroji kurihara (Sonntag, 02 April 2023 08:22)
Perihelion Shift of Mercury (Labyrinth)
This problem could be discribed as a problem in which Mercury's elliptical orbit rotates slightly in the direction of Mercury's orbital motion. Like hands of a clock. Reason for rotation may be due to the fact that Mercury is not a point but a sphere that has a size (mass distribution). But beyond that, it is a labyrinth for me.
Is the reason for rotation lies in perihelion or in aphelion ? Or is it in neither ? And, if the reason lies in aphelion, is it due to addition of centrifugal force ? Or is it due to weakening of gravitational pull of Sun ?
Hiroji kurihara (Montag, 27 März 2023 06:46)
Perihelion Shift of Mercury (problem posing)
I said earlier that this story should start from aphelion, not perihelion. Yes, size of Mercury will increase centrifugal force and will rotate the orbit of Mercury in the direction of revolution. It will also increase size of orbit and increase momentum of Mercury.
Moon is said to be receding away from Earth. Although it is on order of a few centimeters per year. There are not a few sites on web. Many of them say that reason is slowing down of rotation of Earth. And total angular momentum of Earth and Moon must be conserved. But is relationship between Earth and Moon still the same today ? I guess what I said in the first half of this post applies to Moon as well.
Hiroji kurihara (Sonntag, 26 März 2023 01:04)
Perihelion Shift of Mercury (Supplement)
Story will be started from aphelion. Starting is addition of centrifugal force (because of the size of Mercury), which causes orbit to be outside the original orbit. Then, very slight rotation of long axis and short axis, i.e., the elliptical orbit (centered on the forcal point where Sun is located) will continue.
Note: It is said that Moon is receding from Earth at a rate of a few centimeters per year. Perhaps, size of Moon will add centrifugal force on Moon’s orbital motion.
Hiroji kurihara (Dienstag, 21 März 2023 05:45)
Spherical Shell Theorem
Let me revise my 12 Marz post as follows.
There are two figures A and B that draw Sun and Mercury. A shows Mercury on the line of action of gravity of Sun extending from the left. Distance between two stars is 50. In B, Mercury is divided into two hemispheres, left and right. The distance between center of sphere (of A) and the center of gravity of two hemispheres each is 1. In B, denominators of formula for magnitude of gravity are 49 and 51. And squared are 2401 and 2601.
Magnitude of gravity is 2500 in A and 2501 in B. Size of sphere seems to be related to magnitude of gravity. Spherical shell theorem will not be valid. Main reason for perihelion shift of Mercury will be its size.
Note) In this post, only gravity of Sun is under consideration.
Hiroji kurihara (Mittwoch, 15 März 2023 08:06)
Perihelion Shift of Mercury (again)
There is a figure of Mercury. Mercury is drawn as a circle. Plus, the center of it and an arc are drawn. This arc passes through the center and is extending symmetrically upward and downward. This arc is part of circle centered at the center of Sun that is located on the right of this figure. Therefore, the area of Mercury divided by the arc is left > right. Thus, actual magnitude of centrifugal force of Mercury due to its orbital motion will exceed the magnitude calculated as a point. Probably, this will be the main reason for perihelion shift of Mercury.
Note : For planets with satellites, perihelion shif seems to be larger. This will be due to centrifugal force.
Note : There must be more unknowns in perihelion shift.
Hiroji kurihara (Sonntag, 12 März 2023 09:48)
Spherical Shell Theorem (Continued)
In figure A, let distance from the center of sphere to fixed point be 50. And in figure B, let distance between the center of sphere and center of gravity of two hemispheres be 1. In figure B, in the formula of gravity, denominators are square of 49 and 51. These are 2401 and 2601. Contrary to expectations, size of the sphere seems to reduce the magnitude of gravity.
Therefore, gravity seems not to be the cause of perihelion shift of Mercury. Size of Mercury will increase centrifugal force.
Hiroji kurihara (Samstag, 11 März 2023 10:23)
Spherical Shell Theorem
A homogeneous sphere, the source of gravity, and a line of action of gravity extending horizontally through the center of the sphere are drawn. At a fixed point, on left side of the line of action, not far apart, magnitude of gravity is calculated. Now, let the gravity source be the left and right hemispheres, and the gravity originating from the two hemispheres is calculated. Magnitude of gravity depends on the square of the distance. Therefore, sum of the gravity originating from the two hemispheres will differ from the magnitude calculated by the spherical shell theorem.
The above is on the Sun's gravity only.
Hiroji kurihara (Samstag, 11 März 2023 01:43)
Perihelion Shift of Mercury (again)
Shift of perihelion is in the direction of Mercury’s own revolution, and speed of shift is constant. Like hands of clock. Main reason will be two-body problem.
How is Sun’s gravity acting on Mercury calculated ? Will be by Newton’s spherical shell theorem. But is this theorem right ? Has anyone raised any objection ?
Gravity of Sun acting on Mercury depends on square of the distance between them. On the other hand, centrifugal force due to orbital motion of Mercury depends on distance between them. Therefore, the size of Mercury and Sun will also play a role. But it is contrary to the spherical shell theorem
If the above is right, because the two bodies are close, size of Mercury and Sun will increase the magnitude of gravity. And orbital motion of Mercury will be accelerated.
Hiroji kurihara (Montag, 06 März 2023 08:03)
Selected Posts on Anti-Relativity (5)
◎ Doppler Effect of Light
Frequency of incoming light varies with the motion of an observer. In the formula c = fλ, it is clear that the speed of light (for the observer) cannot be constant.
Hiroji kurihara (Samstag, 25 Februar 2023 08:59)
Selected Posts on Anti-Relatiyity (4)
◎ Speed of Light
For speed of light, the constant speed, and the formula c = fλ seem to be all. But is it really that simple?
A beam of light is propagating through aether. An observer is in uniform linear motion at various angles relative to this beam. The speed of the observer relative to aether also varies. Observer's motion can be accelerated motion, jerk motion, or curvilinear motion. Also, speed of light wave and light ray (photon) will generally be different.
No, to light, special treatment must not be given. Then, all must be simple.
◎ Aether
In outer space, frequency and wavelength of two stars light are being measured. Two stars are in opposite directions (antipodal point) on the celestial sphere, and the measurements are done simultaneously. The sum of the two values will be 2c or a constant close to 2c.
The above will show the motion of the observer relative to aether.
◎ Accelerated Motion and Aether
Accelerated motion will be absolute motion against aether. Accelerated motion and inertial force are two sides of the same coin. Gravity is not involved and is irrelevant.
That is, we are surrounded by aether.
◎ Acceleration and Non-Acceleration
The passenger car is accelerating uniformly to the right. In this car, a ray of light (frequency is constant) is emitted from the rear to the front. The number of light waves existing inside the car will be higher than when the car is stationary. That is, there will be apparent difference between non-acceleration and acceleration.
Ray of light is emitted from the ceiling of the passenger car downward. If the passenger car is accelerating, the ray draw a parabola. That is, there will be apparent difference between non-acceleration and acceleration.p
◎ Local Inertial Frame
An elevator-like but homogeneous rectangular body is in free falling. Suppose this body consists of many local area of mass m. So, inertial force acting on each local area is mg. That is, local inertial frame will be impossible.
Gravity and inertial force are cancelled out partially or sometimes totally. But, it is action that cancelled out, not existence.
Hiroji kurihara (Donnerstag, 23 Februar 2023 01:41)
Selected Posts on Anti-Relativity (3)
◎ Light Clock
A light clock is working in a moving passenger car. In books or in other illustrations, light travels back and forth vertically, but this light clock slightly leans to the right or left. So, the zigzag (sawtooth) of light path seen by an observer on the ground warps. Two kinds of dilations ? And how about if two light clocks with different lean work ?
◎ Time Dilation
In outer space, a spaceship is sailing horizontally. Plane wave of light (wavelength is constant) of the first-magnitude star Sirius is coming from directly above. Phenomenon of time dilation can not be valid.
◎ Relativity of Simultaneity
On the Moon's surface, a passenger car is moving to the right. From the center of the ceiling of the car, light rays are emitted to directly below and diagonally downward to left and right at 45 degrees. And three points of light are reflected on the floor. Three points are symmetrical to observer on the Moon's surface also. Relativity of simultaneity will be invalid.
◎ Perihelion Shift of Mercury
The perihelion shift moves in one direction and its speed seems to be almost constant. Like the hands of a clock. Main cause of the shift seems not to be gravity of other planets. Main cause will be two-body problem of Mercury and Sun. Not as points, but as spheres.
Hiroji kurihara (Montag, 20 Februar 2023 04:46)
Selected Posts on Anti-Relativity (2)
◎ Lorentz Contraction
Plane waves of starlight (wavelength is constant) is arriving from upper left 45 degrees. Two spacecrafts are sailing in the right and left directions. Number of waves hitting the front and rear ends (A and B) of each spacecraft is the same. Therefore, number of waves existing between A and B is invariant (for both spacecrafts, regardless of lateral motion). Lorentz contractions will be impossible.
Relativity of simultaneity will be impossible also.
◎ Aberration
Aberration is caused by various motions of Earth relative to stationary aether (uniform isotropic). Light that enters upper air of Earth (from aether) is bent in the direction of motion of Earth. As a phenomenon, aberration is completed in the upper air. The same as refraction.
Therefore, illustration of raindrops and an umbrella is NG. Result of Airy’s experiment with a water-filled telescope is only natural. It is said that apparent displacement of stars is displaced in the direction of Earth’s motion, but in fact, it will be the opposite. You can check this by drawing light bending (in upper air) on a paper.
◎ Inertial Force is not Fictitious.
The same five bodies (mass m) are lined up sideways on a horizontal plane. Five bodies are tied with four strings. Assume that horizontal plane is zero friction, and mass of strings is zero. On right most body, force of 5ma is acting to the right and five bodies start a uniform linear accelerating motion toward the right. Tension acting on four strings are, from right to left, 4ma, 3ma, 2ma, and 1ma.
Tension in the string above will be the same to an observer of any frame of motion. Inertial force (accelerated motion) is not fictitious.
◎ Equivalence Principle
For gravity and inertial force in free-falling elevator, acceptable explanation will be Newton’s law of action and reaction. Equivalence principle should be forgotten.
Hiroji kurihara (Montag, 20 Februar 2023 04:42)
Selected Posts on Anti-Relativity
◎ Michelson-Morley Experiment
It (done in air) is nonsense. In air, light is propagated at c/n. So, the result of M-M experiment (done in air) is only natural.
In a book "Theory of Relativity" by Pauli, W 1958, it's written as follows (quoted from English version ; in 1-6). "Rather should one say that for an observer moving with medium, light is propagated as usual with velocity c/n in all directions".
◎ Speed of Light
The defined value of speed of light is based on measurements (with wavelength and frequency) done by Evenson et al. in 1973. Error is 1.1 m / s in pramai. Now measuring instrument is separated into a measuring part and a light source part. When one of them is moved at a constant speed higher than above error (in the direction of light path), different value will be obtained.
◎ Propagation of Light
In outer space, a starlight is reflected by a mirror. There is a formula c = f λ. Now, the mirror is stationary. In comparing of incident light and reflected light, f is the same. And usually, c & λ are different.
Now, the mirror moves in the direction of the light path of incident light. In the formula on incident light, λ is constant. And c & f will be variables. And in the formula on reflected light, c is constant. And f & λ will be variables.
1. In outer space, a star light is reflected by a mirror. Speed of incident light is constant relative to aether.
2. In outer space, a star light is reflected by a mirror. Speed of reflected light is constant relative to the mirror (the emission theory).
In two pictures sbove each, speed of light to a moving observer follows Galilean transformation.
◎ Aether
All kinds of aberration are caused by motion of Earth. Qualitatively, quantitatively. For example, cycle of annual aberration is 365 days. It is reflection of motion of Earth. On the other hand, any motion of star’s side has no influence. Only position on the celestial sphere is valid. These facts will be explainable only by aether.
Hiroji kurihara (Dienstag, 14 Februar 2023 05:56)
Inertial Force is not Fictitious (again)
The same five bodies (mass m) are lined up sideways on a horizontal plane. Five bodies are tied with four strings. Assume that horizontal plane is zero friction, and mass of strings is zero. On right most body, force of 5ma is acting to the right and five bodies start a uniform linear accelerating motion toward the right. Tension acting on four strings are, from right to left, 4ma, 3ma, 2ma, and 1ma.
Tension in the string above will be the same to an observer of any frame of motion. Inertial force (accelerated motion) is not fictitious.
Hiroji kurihara (Dienstag, 07 Februar 2023 01:08)
Equivalence principle (again)
For gravity and inertial force in free-falling elevator, acceptable explanation will be Newton's law of action and reaction. Equivalence principle should be forgotten.
Hiroji kurihara (Sonntag, 05 Februar 2023 07:44)
Free Fall
A body is in free fall. Assume that this body is a homogeneous rectangular. Inertial force is acting on every local area. Therefore, there can be no local inertial frame for this body.
Inertial force and gravity are canceled each other partially and sometimes totally. But canceled is action not existence.
Hiroji kurihara that (Dienstag, 31 Januar 2023 05:36)
Local Inertial Frame ? (again)
A homogenous disk is rotating vertically. Gravity from below. Therefore, inertial force (centrifugal force) and gravity act on each mass point of the disk. When the rotation speed of the disk exceeds a certain magnitude, a mass point appears where vector of inertial force and gravity are canceled (as total). But it is only natural. It seems to not be note worthy.
In free falling elevator, mass point where vector of inertial force and gravity are canceled (as total) appears also. Physically, it would be the same phenomenon as a rotating disk.
Hiroji kurihara (Sonntag, 29 Januar 2023 09:04)
Free Fall (Monologue)
A large number of particles are floating in vacuum space. To our eyes, these are visible as a cube or an elevator cabin. Suddenly, a gravity source appears below and the elevator-like thing starts free-falling. As time passes, the elevator-like thing gradually changes its shape.
The above can be explained by Newtonian mechanics.
Hiroji kurihara (Donnerstag, 26 Januar 2023 08:14)
Inertial Resistance is not Fictitious (again)
Not a few explanations of law of action and reaction begins with two bodies. Misleading explanation. This law is the law at point of action of force. And, it is the law that action and reaction are equal, and direction of force is opposite.
A body is pulled by a string. At every point on the string, tension is the same. That is, action and reaction have the same magnitude and opposite directions. This is the same when the body is uniformly accelerated by the string. Both forces are true forces. It is Impossible that one (inertial resistance) is fictitious.
Hiroji kurihara (Dienstag, 24 Januar 2023 05:18)
Inertial Resistance is not Fictitious (again).
Let's review formulas, F = ma and F = mg.
Dividing both sides by m gives a = F/m and g = F/m. Therefore, a = g.
Thus, mass acting as gravity and mass acting as inertial force are (assumed to be) the same. Also, quantitatively as m. This is also guaranteed by Newton's third law of motion.
Hiroji kurihara (Sonntag, 22 Januar 2023 03:26)
Inertial Force is not Fictitious (Continued)
In previous post (17 Jan), both sides of formula F = ma are divided by m. Now, alternatively, F = ma are divided by a. Then, formula F/a = m is given. This will also show that a and ma will not be fictitious.
Also, two formulas F = ma and F = mg may not be compatible with the assertion of gravitational mass and inertial mass ("Both are completely different phenomena" on Wikipedia "mass" in Japanese. Also, not be compatible with existence of two idioms).
Hiroji kurihara (Dienstag, 17 Januar 2023 02:17)
Inertial force is not fictitious (is something wrong ?)
Formula, F = ma, is well-known formula. Now, dividing both sides by m. It gives F/m = a. F on the left side is the force (external force) in "Newton". Both F and m are physical quantities. Both will not be fictitious. Therefore, a and inertial force ma will not be fictitious also. Is there anything wrong with the above ?
Hiroji kurihara (Sonntag, 15 Januar 2023 01:29)
Inertial force is not fictitious (monologue)
On a plane (no friction), there is a body mass 3m. It is pulled by a string from the left and is accelerated. Tension of the string F is 3ma. Now, suppose there is another body to the right of this body. Two bodies are tied with a string. Also suppose the mass of the left body be 2m and the mass of the right body be m. The force F that pulls the left string is the same. So, tension on the left string will be 3ma and tension on the right string will be ma.
Hiroji kurihara (Donnerstag, 12 Januar 2023 09:08)
Newton's Third Law of Motion
A body of mass m is suspended from ceiling by a string. From below, this body is pulled by another string. Tension of this string is 2 mg. So, the tension of upper string is 3 mg. That is, action-reaction of upper string is both 3 mg. Mass of the body is basically irrelevant.
Hiroji kurihara (Mittwoch, 11 Januar 2023 12:47)
Inertial Force is not Fictitious (partially reposted)
Gravity acts on everything equally. And if there is action, there is reaction. As stated by Newton’s third law of motion. Below are some examples.
F = mg (free fall)
F = normal reaction
F = air resistance (falling at terminal speed)
F = air resistance + inertial force (falling before terminal speed)
Is F in F = mg fictitious ? The claim of fictitious will not hold.
Hiroji kurihara (Samstag, 07 Januar 2023 06:06)
Motions Relative to Aether (monologue)
1) Rotary motion: Two same disks are rotating. If the rotary speed is the same, the same inertial force will appear. Regardless of the direction of plane of rotation. It must be because of aether (homogeneous and isotropic).
2) Curvilinear motion: Two same spheres move in curvilinear motion. Two curves are the same in size and shape. If two spheres move at the same uniform speed (from the same starting point), the same inertial force will appear. Regardless of the direction of curve. It must be because of aether (homogeneous and isotropic).
3) Accelerated motion on straight lines: Two same spheres move on two straight lines. If motions are the same accelerated motion, the same inertial force will appear. Regardless of the direction of the straight line. It must be because of aether (homogeneous and isotropic).
4) Uniform linear motion: Two same spheres move in uniform linear motion. Inertial forces do not appear. Regardless of the direction of straight line. It must be because of aether (homogeneous and isotropic).
Hiroji kurihara (Montag, 02 Januar 2023 09:38)
Local Inertial Frame (Monologue)
In all areas of a free-falling elevator, formula F ≒ ma ≠ 0, or F = ma ≠ 0 will consist. So, there will be no inertial frame, even locally.
In a free-falling elevator (assumed to be a rigid body), coexistence of inertial frame and accelerated frame will be impossible, even locally.
Hiroji kurihara (Donnerstag, 29 Dezember 2022 04:19)
Aberration on the Moon
Major aberrations observable on the moon’s surface are four. Two are corresponding to daily, annual aberrations of earth. Two are annual, secular aberrations of earth themselves (in common). These four aberrations show that aberration are caused by the motion of the telescope on the moon’s surface relative to aether. Qualitatively, quantitatively. Motion of telescope is motion relative to aether.
On the moon’s surface, a water-filled telescope will show what Airy imaged (but if light receiving surface is glass, it will follow the refractive index of the glass). Also on the moon’s surface, picture of tilted umbrella and rain drops (raindrops are photons) will be valid (invalid on earth).
Hiroji kurihara (Samstag, 24 Dezember 2022 10:34)
Gravity and Time Dilation
There are two mirrors. One is on the ground, one is 22.6m above. These are facing each other. A laser beam is emitted downward from the left end of the upper mirror, forming letter W, and is coming to the upper right (beam is in vacuum). Frequency at five points will be the same. There will be no time dilation due to difference of gravity.
Note) A few translated books say that (outline), when the distance between two points on the light path remains the same, the frequency of two points are the same (assuming frequency of the light source is constant).
Hiroji kurihara (Mittwoch, 21 Dezember 2022 07:53)
About the speed of light (supplement to the post Dez 19)
Plane waves and rays (photons) of light from the first-magnitude star, Sirius are propagating through outer space. An observer is moving in various motions. Speed of plane waves and light rays (photons) to the observer will be different (usually).
Hiroji kurihara (Montag, 19 Dezember 2022 09:28)
About the Speed of Light
For light that is propagated in aether, speed of light waves and ray (photons) relative to an observer will be different (usually). And, for light that is propagated according to emission theory, above will be the same (different also, usually).
Hiroji kurihara (Montag, 12 Dezember 2022 05:48)
About the speed of light
As for speed of light, constancy of speed of light, and the formula c = f λ seem to be all. But is it so simple ?
A ray of light is propagating through aether. An observer is moving in a uniform linear motion lerative to this ray at various angle. The speed of the observer relative to aether is also varies. And, the observer's motion can be accelerated motion, jerk (on a straight line), or can be curvilinear motion. Besides, there will be areas where the propagation of light follows emission theory.
In short, there will be no reason to treat light specially. It's so simple.
Hiroji kurihara .? (Samstag, 03 Dezember 2022 06:35)
Inertial Force
◎ Inertial force is reaction of Newton's law of action-reaction (the third law of motion). It is not a fictitious force.
◎ In the entire elevator cabin in free-falling, gravity and inertial force are action and reaction. And the two are equal. So, it is not surprising that in this cabin, there is a local area where the magnitude of gravity and inertial force are equal. In this local area, magnitude of inertial force is not zero. That is, this local area is not an inertial frame.
◎ There are two points that are not in relative motion. It is impossible to say for one to be an inertial frame and for the other an accelerated frame. There can be no such thing as a local inertial frame.
Hiroji kurihara (Donnerstag, 01 Dezember 2022 12:15)
Equivalence Principle
When a mass point is accelerated, inertial force appears. Its vector can be at our will. On the other hand, gravity acting on a mass point is unrelated to the accelerated motion of this mass point. And, the vector is not at our will. In summary, inertial force and gravity are two different things, like water and oil (even if the vector of the two acting on a mass point happen to cancel each other out).